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As the "People of the East" the Wampanoag harvested the seas for a wide variety of species

The Bounty of the Sea

New England's Fish

ALEWIFE, MENHADEN, SHAD

Alewife Pomolobus pseudoharengus

Menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus

Shad Alosa sapidissima

Size: up to 15", up to 15" , up to 30"

Habitat: Fresh water and salt water, fresh water and salt water , estuaries and fresh water

Diet: small fish, crustaceans

Method of Capture: nets, basket

Seasonality: schooling fish that enter fresh water to spawn

Alewife February to November in Bays

Menhaden May to November in Bays

Uses: food, fresh or smoke dried, fertilizer for fields

Sources:

John Smith 1614

214: Monhegan Island, fishing season past by June some taken in July and August

men who had been fishing and fowling, brought a great piece of fish which tasted fat like porpoise, and another great scaly fish broiled on the coals, much like white salmon (shad)

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

205: July 3, They got the spawn of the shad at Namasket, found many natives fishing

upon a weir

211: July 6, Back to Plymouth, stopped at a town close to Massasoit's and had fish and dried shellfish as big as oysters, Back to the weir but noone was there, 1 native

shot a shad and a small squirrel, got many fish and roasted all

John Pory 1622

07: In April and May come up another kind of fish which they call herring or old wives (alewives) in infinite schools, into a small river running under town, and so into a great pond or lake of a mile broad, where they cast their spawn, the water of the said river being in many places not above half a foot deep. Yea, when a heap of stones is reared up against them a foot high above the water, they leap and tumble over and will not be beaten back with crudgels. Which confirmeth not only that of Horace "Naturam expellas furca licet", etc., but that also which was thought a

fable of Friar Beatus Odoricus, namely, that in some parts where he had travelled,

the fish in the springtime did cast themselves out of the sea upon dry land. The inhabitants during the said two months take them up every day in hogsheads. And

with those they eat not they manure the ground, burying two or three in each hill of corn- and may, when they are able, if they see cause, lade whole ships with them.

At their going up they are very fat and savory, but at their coming down, after they have cast their spawns, they are shot, and therefore lean and unwholesome.

Isaac de Rasiers 1627

69: In April, may and June....the largest fish is a sort of white salmon, which is very good flavor, and quite as large; it has white scales; the heads are so full of fat that in some there are two or three spoonfuls, so that they are good eating for one who is fond of pickling heads. It seems that this fish makes them lascivious, for it is

often observed that those who have caught any when they have gone fishing, have

given them, on their return, to the women, who look for them anxiously. Our

people give the same report; it is the same with them when they eat a great deal at one time, as can be shown by their shirts.

75: At the south side of the town (Plymouth) there flows down a small river of fresh

water, very rapid, but shallow, which takes its rise from several lakes in the land

above, and there empties into the sea; where in April and the beginning of May,

there come so many shad from the sea which want to ascend that river, that it is

quite surprising. This river the English have shut in with planks, and in the middle

with a little door, which slides up and down, and at the sides with trellice work,

through which water has its course, but which they can also close with slides.

William Wood 1634

56: alewives like a herring, later part of April come up fresh waters to spawn in incredible numbers shad-bigger and fatter than English ones

Thomas Morton 1637

89: Shads/ Alewives- at the spring of the year pass up the rivers to spawn in the

ponds, Inhabitants dung their ground with them every acre taking 1000 fish. This practice is only for Indian maize, not for English grains.

John Josselyn 1674

77: Alewife, like a herring but with a bigger belly, come in the end of April into fresh

rivers and ponds, where they have taken in two hours without any weir at all, save

for a few stones to block the passage of the river , above 10,000. They make red alewives after the manner as they do herring, and are as good.

100: Alewives taken by natives with a net like a purse net put upon a round hooped stick with a handle in fresh ponds

100: Their fishing follows spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for lobsters, clams, flouke, lumps or plaise, and alewives, afterwards for bass, cod, rock, bluefish, salmon, lampreys and such.

115: Watertown settlers have built a weir on the Charles river where they catch Bass,

shad, alewives, frost fish and smelts, in 2 tides they have gotten 100, 000 of these

fish

119: Alewives common on Merrimac river in Concord, along with Salmon, dace and shad

140: These come when the alewives pass up the river, to be caught in rivers (April), in lobster time at the rocks (May) and in mackerel time in the bays (June to August), at Michelmas in the seas (around September 29). When they used to tide in and

out of the rivers and creeks, the English cross the mouths of the creek at high tide

with a seine net, sometimes 2-3000 at a time, salted and used

Natick Dictionary

18: aumsu -og a fish somewhat like a herring (aum fishook, a fish taken on the hook)

69: munnawhatteaug menhaden from munnohquohteau he enriches or fertilizes the

earth (munnoh-ground- quohteau-?)

Roger Williams 1643

180: Aumsuog Munnawwhatteaug Fish somewhat like a herring

Archaeological Sites

Alewife

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986)

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986)

Great Diamond Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Shad

Seaside Indian Village Site, Milford Harbor, Connecticut (Coffin 1963:14)

Wadleigh Falls Site, Lamprey River, New Hampshire (Maymon and Bolian 1985)

Alewife and/or shad

Riverside/ Gill Sites, Turner's Falls, Gill, Massachusetts (Curran and Thomas 1979) may

be Alewife and. or shad

Mud Lake Stream Site, Spednik Lake between New Brunswick and Maine (Deal 1986)

may be alewife or shad

BARRACUDA

Sphyraena borealis

Size:up to 1'

Habitat:Open water, rarely north of Cape Cod

Diet:Other fish

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:July to December

Uses:Food

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River, Connecticut (Waters 1965)

BASS (STRIPED, ROCK)

Striped Bass Morone saxatilis

Rock Bass Centropristis striata

Size:to 6' long; to 24"long

Habitat:: Inshore over various bottoms, some permanently in fresh water , anadromous, and spawns prolifically in fresh water;cntinental shelf over rocks often caught

from rocks

Diet:lobster, mackeral

Method of Capture:Natives: by net mostly, or speared in weirs, or shot with arrows

Seasonality:May to November

Sources:

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

306: January 1623, Manomet with bass

309: Mattachiest natives get bass both summer and winter, in February they have plenty

205:July 3, found many natives fishing upon a weir, and they caught an abundance of

bass at Titicut

294: June 1622, fish March to October, bays and creeks full of bass,

John Pory 1622

08-09: About mid May come into the harbor the main school of bass and bluefish, which they take with seines- some fishes of a foot and a half, some two foot, and some three foot long- and with hooks, those of four and five feet long. They enter also the flowing water up into the small creek, at the mouths where f the inhabitants, spreading their nets, have caught 500 and 700 at a time. These continue good May, June, July and August.

Emmanuel Altham 1623

25: Here a great store of...bass.

William Wood 1634

55: not much unlike a plaice or turbot, 2 yards long, and one wide, one foot thick, little esteemed except for head and fins which stewed and baked is very good, little are caught while bass are in season

55: one of the best fish, meat delicate, fine, fat, fast fish with a bone in its head which contains a saucerful of marrow, sweet and good, pleasent to the palate and wholesome to the stomach. When there is a great store we only eat the heads and store up the rest for winter. 3-4' long some more some less, at some tides catch 12- 20 in 3 hours. Catch with hook and line, fasten a piece of lobtser onto a codline, pull fish to boat and knock on head. These come when the alewives pass up the river, to be caught in rivers, in lobster time at the rocks and in mackeral

time in the bays, at Michelmas in the seas. When they used to tide in and out of

the rivers and creeks, the English cross the mouths of the creek at high tide with a

sein net, sometimes 2-3000 at a time, salted and used in winter or divided and

used in home and garden.

113: another job of the women is to get lobsters, men use it for bait for bass and cod.

114: In summer when lobster is plenty they take it and dry it for winter, erecting scaffolds in the sun, making fires likewise underneath to drive flies away, dry bass and

other fish this way, cutting them very thin so they dry quicker and hang them in

their smoky houses when it rains.

Thomas Morton 1637

87: Bass-excellant fish both fresh and salted 100 salted have yielded 5 pence. so large

that the head of one will give a good dinner and for the daintyest of the diet they excell the Marybones of beef. At the turning of the tide I have seen so many go out of a river that I thought I could cross over them dry shod. These follow the bait up the rivers and sometimes are followed for bait and chased into the bays and shallow waters by the grand pike.

90: Lobsters- infinite store of them in all parts and very excellant. use them for bait to

catch bass.

87: Mackeral- are the bait for the bass

John Josselyn 1674

78: Bass is a salt water fish but most taken in Rivers where they spawn, there have been 3000 bass taken at one set, one writes that the fat in the bone of the head is his brains which is lye.

100: Their fishing follows spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for lobsters, clams, flouke, lumps or plaise, and alewives, afterwards for bass, cod, rock, bluefish, salmon, lampreys and such bass and bluefish they take in harbors, and at the mouths of barred rivers being in their canoes, striking them with their fishgig

115: Watertown settlers have built a weir on the charles river where they catch Bass

140: Black River as most rivers in New England is barred with a bank of sand where the Indians take bass and Sturgeon.

Natick Dictionary

60: missuckeke (missuckekequock) striped bass miss-suck great black one

Roger Williams 1643

180: Missuckeke/ Missuckekequock Bass (missi- great suck- black)

The English and the Indians make a dainty dish of Uppanquontup or heads of fish; and well they may, the brains and fat of it being very much and sweet as marrow

Ashop Their nets

Which they will set in some little river or cove wherein they kill Bass (at the fall of the water) with their arrows, or sharp sticks, especially if headed with iron

Archaeological Sites

Hornblower II site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:45)

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986a)

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River Connecticut (Waters 1965)

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986b)

Basin Site, Phippsburg Maine (Waters 1965)

Vincent Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Peterson Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984)

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

Pratt Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Cunningham Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot Bay Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Spiess et al. 1983)

BLUEFISH

Pomatomus saltatrix

Size:to 3' 7" 10-15 pounds

Habitat:Surface waters, near shore or offshore,

Diet:squid and schools of small fish

Method of Capture:Hook and line, barred river with fish spear, nets

Seasonality:May to October

Sources:

John Pory 1622

08-09: About mid May come into the harbor the main school of bass and bluefish, which they take with seines- some fishes of a foot and a half, some two foot, and some three foot long- and with hooks, those of four and five feet long. They enter also the flowing water up into the small creek, at the mouths where f the inhabitants, spreading their nets, have caught 500 and 700 at a time. These continue good May, June, July and August. Now as concerning the bluefish, in delicacy it excelleth all kind of fish that ever I tasted; I except the salmon of the Thames in

his prime season, nor any other fish. We call it by the compound name of black, white, blue, sweet, fat- the skin and scale, blue; the flesh next under the scale for

an inch deep black and as sweet as the marrow of an ox; the residue of the flesh underneath, purely white, fat, and of a taste requiring no addition of sauce. By which alluring qualities it may seem dangerously tending to surfeit, but we found

by experience that having satisfied (and in a manner glutted) ourselves therewith, it proved wholesome unto us and most easy of digestion.

John Josselyn 1674

100: Their fishing follows spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for lobsters, clams, flouke, lumps or plaise, and alewives, afterwards for bass, cod, rock, bluefish, salmon, lampreys and such. Bass and bluefish they take in harbors, and at the mouths of barred rivers being in their canoes, striking them with their fishgig.

Natick Dictionary

110: osacontuck- fat sweet fish bluefish (osque (256) fat wekon (331) sweet ahtuk hunted one)

Archaeological Sites

Goddard Site, Maine (Bourque and Cox 1981:18)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River, Connecticut (Waters 1965)

Hornblower II Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969)

Quidnet Site, Nantucket (Carlson)

COD

Gadus morhua

Size:Range up to 6' long and up to 200 pounds, but average at 6-12 pounds

Habitat:usually near bottom at depths from 6-20 fathoms, over hard irregular sea floor.

Diet:mainly mollusks and other fish.

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:cod are a migratory fish which arrive in our area in the fall, stay for the

winter and are present in the spring. They are not around in the summer.

Sources:

Gosnold 1602

48: saw cods

Champlain 1605

82-83: when he was exploring in Plymouth harbor in July: "The natives came in a boat who had been fishing for cod which are found in very large numbers. These they catch with hooks made of a piece of wood to which they fasten a bone in the

shape of a spear, and fasten it very securely. The whole has a fang shape, and the

line made of the bark of trees. The bone is fastened on with cordage, plant used is gathered, not cultivated and grew to a height of 4-5'." (Champlain 19xx:82-83)

Weymoth 1605

27: men took cod

110: May, St. George Island Maine, caught cod

Pring 1606

60: June- August saw cod (many in June)

John Smith 1614

231: March, April, May and 1/2 June cod in abundance

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

164: December 18, Plymouth harbor, innumerable store of cod,

233: Fresh cod in summer

171: January 5, got 1 cod

172: January 8, Jones sent the shallop got and one cod,

228: September 21, boiled cod for the men

294: June 1622,fish March to October sea full of cod

233: Fresh cod in summer

294: June 1622, fish March to October, bays and creeks full of bass, sea full of cod,

John Pory 1622

09: Without the bay, in the ocean sea, they have all the year long in a manner goodly fishing of cod and hake, as in other parts of Canada.

14: (written possibly of Monhegan Island) Whereas heretofore a vulgar error, namely that fish is not to be had here at all times of the year, had generally possessed the

minds of all men, experience hath now taught us the contrary: that in some two

months of the cod, which never bites but in the daytime, comes altogether as good

a fish called a hake to be caught in the night. And Cape Cod itself hath not that

name for naught: for it is thought that one's shallop's fishing only would suffice

the whole plantation of New Plymouth all the year long. To the east and north of

this place is found as great plenty as to the south and west. Now whether there be any cod or no to the south af the place (as the Company desire to be informed), although Mr Vengham, a man of experience in those parts, do seem to doubt. Yet a Flemish pilot, who is to conduct Captain Argall his pinnace into Hudson's River, putteth down in his plot a place some fifteen leagues to the west of Elizabeth's Island, which he calleth Cod Island (possibly Block Island).

Emmanuel Altham 1623

25: On the way to Patucxet they were stuck in the fog and so went fishing and caught 100 great cod in one hour.

Isaac De Rasiers 1627

75: The bay (Plymouth) is very full of fish, of cod, so that the Governor before named has told me that when the people have a desire for fish they send out two or three persons in a sloop, whom they remunerate for their trouble, and who bring them in three or four hours time as much fish as the whole community require for a whole day-and they muster about 50 families.

William Wood 1634

53: cod here bigger than New foundland, 6-7 make a quintal, there are 15 to the same

113: lobtser bait for cod

Thomas Morton 1637

86: Cod- 300 sails of ships from various parts are employed in the fishing. The coasts

abounds with them. Inhabitants fertilize grounds with them. 100 of these cods at the same price as 300 Newfoundland great stores of train oil is made of the livers

of cods.

Josselyn, Rarieties 1673

32: Cod- staple commodity, To stop fluxes of the blood- in the head is a stone, which being pulverized and drunk will stop overflowing courses. For the stone- the stone in their bellies in the bladder near the navel, pulverized and mixed with white

wine. To heal a green cut- about the fins you will find a kind of lowse. To restore

them who have melted their greese-livers and sounds eaten.

John Josselyn 1674

100: Their fishing follows spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for lobsters, clams, flouke, lumps or plaise, and alewives, afterwards for bass, cod, rock, bluefish, salmon, lampreys and such.

Natick Dictionary

16: pakonnotam codfish pak(paug)-not(noot)-am clean/ white carried line fish

117: paponaumsu tom cod from popon-ae and aumsu winter hook and line fish

120: pauganaut cod paug-an (ane) white kind of fish

Roger Williams 1643

180: Pauganaut/ Pauganautamwock Cod, which is the first that comes a little before

the spring

William Wood 1634

noeicomquocke (<87>noe- in the middle, <140>quogqueu- they run: ? Natick)

Archaeological Sites

Hornblower II site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie)

Boothbay Region, Maine (Carlson 1986)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Wheeler Site, Merrimack River, Massachusetts (Barber 1982)

Sears Island Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Speiss and Heddon 1983)

Kidder Point Site, penobscot Bay, Maine (Speiss 1983)

Boothbay Region Sites (Carlson 1986)

Great Diamond Island, Casco Bay, maine (Yesner 1984)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Calf island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

Long Island Site, Boston harbor (Carlson 1986a)

Fernald Point Site, Mount Desert island, Maine (Carlson 1980, Sanger 1980, 1982)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay, Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speisset al 1983))

CUNNER

Tautogolabrus adspersus

Size:Average 6-10" up to 15" and 2 1/2 pounds

Habitat:Shallow coastal waters, in eelgrass, around rock piles, Massachusetts Bay chief

center of abundance

Diet:Omnivorous

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality: Year round but especially in warmer months

Uses:Food

Sources:

Weymoth 1605

149: saw cunner fish

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw cunners

Natick Dictionary

30: cachauxet (Peq.) the cunner fish the one marked with spots/ striped

Archaeological Sites

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Kidder Point Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Speiss and Heddon 1983)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay, Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

CUSK

Brosme brosme

Size:up to 3 1/2'

Habitat:Bottom dwellers in water deeper than 10 fathoms, rarely taken in cape Cod Bay

or in deeper water of Massachusetts Bay, Many taken off Chatham and Cape Ann.

Diet:Crustacea and crabs

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:Year round

Uses:Food

Sources:

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw cusk

Archaeological Sites

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor: (Luedtke 1980)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

DOGFISH

Squalus acanthias

Size:to 5'

Habitat:Temperate waters over soft bottoms, off coast up to 200 fathoms, migratory and travel in packs

Diet:Codfish, smaller fish

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:June to October

Uses:Food

Sources:

Gosnold 1602

48: saw dogfish

Weymoth 1605

110: May, St. George Island Maine caught thornbacke

William Wood 1634

55: thornbacks and skates given to the dogs, being not counted worth the dressing in

many places

Josselyn, Rarieties 1673

33: dogfish- ravenous fish, For the Toothache-thorn on the back 2-3 inches long

scarifying the gum, skins good to cover boxes and instrument cases.

Natick Dictionary

235: anishamog from anussu/ anishu it is tainted/ putrid/ smells

This was originally identified as a word for codfish, but more likely it is the word for the dogfish which is often caught while fishing for cod and which, if not immediately gutted, will stink like ammonia.

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Region: Shepscot and Damariscotta Sites, maine (Carlson 1986)

Seabrook marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites, Maine (Carlson 1985)

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

Spectacle Island Site, Boston Harbor (Timelines)

EEL

Anguilla rostrata

Size:Up to 4 1/2'

Habitat:Fresh water, salt water, especially in eel grass

Diet:Other fish, rotting animal matter

Method of Capture:eel traps baited with lobster, digging, stomping on mud and

catching with hands

Seasonality: April to September in Bays October to April in rivers

Uses:Food

Sources:

Michael Filisky 1989

26: American Eel makes a reverse breeding it lives in fresh water and spawns in the sea.

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw eels

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

166: December 19, eels into town brook in autumn

196: March 23, Squanto fished for eels, trod them out in Town Brook.

233: September, hogsheads of eels in Winter they can be dug out of their beds,

John Pory 1622

07: In March eels come forth out of the places where they lie bedded all winter, into the fresh streams, and there into the sea, and in their passage they are taken in pots. In September they run out of the sea into the fresh streams, to bed themselves in the ground all winter, and are again taken in pots as they return homeward. In winter they dig them up, being bedded in gravel not above 2 or 3 feet deep, and all the

rest of the year they may take them in pots in the salt water of the bay. They are passing sweet, fat and wholesome, having no taste at all of the mud, and are as great as ever I saw any.

Emmanuel Altham 1623

25: Here is a great store of....eels.....

William Wood 1634

56: great store of salt water ones, especially in such places where the grass grows, taken

in eel pots made of osiers, baited with a piece of lobster, take a bushel in a night

Thomas Morton 1637

89: Eels- there is abundance, both in salt and fresh water. The fresh water ones are the

best ever found. I have with eels pots found my household (nine persons besides

dogs) with them taking at every tide (for 4 months space) and preserving of them

for winter these prove a good commodity.

John Josselyn 1674

79: of two sorts, salt water and fresh, these are again distinguished into silver bellied and yellow bellied, I have never eaten better eels. those who have no mind or leisure

to take them, may buy of an Indian half a dozen silver bellied eels as big as we

usually give 8-12 pence in London, for 3 pence a groat. There are several ways of

cooking them, some love them roasted, other baked, some fried- (a recipe follows

in the account)

100: sturgeon feed on eels

Peter Kalm 1770

423-424: Fish Traps. They have a very peculiar method of catching fish near the shore here. They place hedges along the shore, made of twisted osiers, so close that no fish can get through them, and from one foot to a yard high, according to the different depths of the water. For this purpose they choose places where the water runs off during the ebb, and leaves the hedges quite dry. Within this inclosure

they place several weels, or wickerwork fish traps, in the form of cylinders, but

broader at the base. They are placed upright, and are about a yard high and two

and a half feet wide; on one side near the bottom is an entrance for the fishes,

made of twigs, and sometimes a yarn made into a net. Opposite to this entrance,

on the other side of the weel, facing the lower part of the river, is another

entrance, like the first, and leading to a box of boards about four feet long, two

deep and two broad. Near each of the weels is a hedge lerading obliquely to the

long hedge, and making an acute angle with it. This hedge is made in order to

lead the fish directly into the trap, and it is placed on that end of the long hedge

which points towards the upper part of the river. When the tide comes in, the fish,

and chiefly the eels, go up with it along the river side; when the water begins to

ebb, the fish likewise go down the river, and meeting with the hedges, they swim

into the boxes of boards (or eelpots), at the top of which there is a hole with a

cover, through which the fish can be taken out. This apparatus is made chiefly for

catching eels. In some places hereabouts they place nets instead of the hedges of

twigs.

Natick Dictionary

81: neeshauog eels nees-auog they go in pairs, they couple. possibly more descriptive

of lampreys

84: nquitteconnau-og eels they go one by one, or singly

145: sassammauquock eels (sa-bitter /harsh sammauquock- stretched out ones)

183: mihtuckquashep eel pot (Metugqua- little sticks shep- from hashep cordage= little tied sticks/ little sticks with cordage )

Kunnagqunneyteg a greater sort of eel pot (kunnag-(kenugke)-in the water qunney-longer teag-thing)

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Harbor region,Maine (Carlson 1986)

Allerton-Cushman site C-21 (Chartier 1996)

 

WINTER FLOUNDER (TURBOT, HALIBUT, PLAICE)

Pseudopleuronectus americanus

Size:to 23"

Habitat:Over mud and sand, with or without vegetation, to 20 fathoms or more

Diet:Shrimp and small fish

Method of Capture:Speared, hook and line

Seasonality:Deep water in summer and shallower in winter, year round

Uses:Food

Sources:

Pring 1606

60: June- August saw turbots

Hudson 1609

183: caught a great halibut

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw turbot

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

164: December 18, Plymouth harbor, innumerable store of turbot (halibut).

Emmanuel Altham 1623

25: We got many turbots, likewise one turbot we got gave all our ship a meal and to

spare.

William Wood 1634

55: not much unlike a plaice or turbot, 2 yards long, and one wide, one foot thick, little esteemed except for head and finswhich stewed and baked is very good, little are caught while bass are in season

Thomas Morton 1637

89: Halibut/ Turbot- some so big it takes two men to haul into the boat. They are in such plenty that fishermen eat only the heads and fins and throw away the bodies. In paris they would fetch 5-6 crowns a piece.

90: Plaice- excellant and easy to take. they do almost come to shore.

Natick Dictionary

21: checout, chequit the name of a fish (chohki spotted) (flounder?)

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Sears Island Site, Penobscot Bay, maine (Speiss and Heddon 1983:77)

Kidder Point Site, Penobscot Bay, maine (Speiss and Heddon 1983)

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986)

Great Diamond Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Fernald point Site, Mount Desert Island, Maine (Carlson 1980, Sanger 1980, 1982)

Frazer point Site, Frenchman Bay, maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

GOOSEFISH

Lophius americanus

Size:to 4'

Habitat:on bottom to about 200 fathoms, but frequents shallows in the north of its range

Diet:any kind of fish, various species of birds (even geese), turtles and invertebrates.

They can swallow fish that are equal to their own weight

Method of Capture:spear? hook and line?

Seasonality:year round

Uses:food

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Hornblower II site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 45)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al 1983)

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

HADDOCK

Melanogrammus aeglefinnus

Size:to 3'8". up to 4 pounds

Habitat:Usually at 25-75 fathoms, rarely in shoal water

Method of Capture:Hook and line from a boat

Seasonality:Year round

Uses:Food

Sources:

Weymoth 1605

110: May, St. George Island Maine, caught Haddock

127: men took haddock with hooks

149: saw haddock

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw haddock

William Wood 1634

55: Haddock are the same as they are in England and much is taken

Natick Dictionary

235: pakonnotam haddock (pahke- clean oonoit-deep water am- fish caught by

hook and line)

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Maine site (Carlson 1986)

Wheeler site, Merrimac River in Massachusetts (Barber 1982)

Mosher Island, Casco Maine (Yesner 1984).

HAKE

Merluccius vulgaris

Size:to 4'

Habitat:Over muddy bottoms

Method of Capture:Hook and line from a boat

Seasonality:April to July and September to November

Uses:Food

Sources:

Gosnold 1602

48: saw whales, tortoises, seals, cods, mackerall, breames, thornbacks, hakes, rockfish, dogfish, lobsters, crabs

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw hake

John Pory 1622

09: Without the bay, in the ocean sea, they have all the year long in a manner goodly fishing of cod and hake, as in other parts of Canada.

14: (written possibly of Monhegan Island) Whereas heretofore a vulgar error, namely that fish is not to be had here at all times of the year, had generally possessed the

minds of all men, experience hath now taught us the contrary: that in some two

months of the cod, which never bites but in the daytime, comes altogether as good

a fish called a hake to be caught in the night.

Thomas Morton 1637

90: Hake- dainty white fish excellant vittell fresh.

Natick Dictionary

110: osacontuck Hake or pollack osa (hose)-(always, day by day) con(kon) (speared) -

tuck (river or sea) always speared in the sea(?)

HERRING

Culpea harengus

Size:up to 17"

Habitat:Fresh water and salt water

Diet:small fish

Method of Capture:nets, baskets

Seasonality:

Herring: January to May and September to December in Bays

March to August in rivers

Uses:Food, fertilizer

Sources:

Weymouth 1605

149: saw herring

Pring 1606

60: June- August saw herring

John Smith 1614

231: May-August herring so numerous that natives compare them to the hairs on their heads

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

164: December 18, Plymouth harbor, innumerable store of herring

171: January 5, found herring on shore

191: March 22, Squanto and Samoset brought a few skins and some red herring newly taken and dried

John Pory 1622

07: In April and May come up another kind of fish which they call herring or old wives (alewives) in infinite schools, into a small river running under town, and so into a great pond or lake of a mile broad, where they cast their spawn, the water of the said river being in many places not above half a foot deep. Yea, when a heap of stones is reared up against them a foot high above the water, they leap and tumble over and will not be beaten back with crudgels. Which confirmeth not only that of Horace "Naturam expellas furca licet", etc, but that also which was thought a fable of Friar Beatus Odoricus, namely, that in some parts where he had travelled, the fish in the springtime did cast themselves out of the sea upon dry land. The inhabitants during the said two months take them up every day in hogsheads. And with those they eat not they manure the ground, burying two or three in each hill

of corn- and may, when they are able, if they see cause, lade whole ships with

them.At their going up they are very fat and savory, but at their coming down, after they have cast their spawns, they are shot, and therefore lean and unwholesome.

William Wood 1634

56: herring much like the English ones

Thomas Morton 1637

88: Herring- great store of fat and fair as good as any.

John Josselyn 1674

77: they take them all summer long. In 1670 they were driven into Black point harbor by other great fish, that they threw themselves upon the shore that we might have

gone half a mile in knee deep fish. We used to qualify a pickled herring by boiling

him in milk.

Natick Dictionary

104: ommis-suog herring om-mis a fish caught on the hook

Archaeological Sites

Wheeler's Site, Merrimcak River, Massachusetts (Barber 1982)

LAMPREY

Petromyzon marinus

Size:up to 33"

Habitat:at sea up to 500', along coasts in estuaries and fresh water

Diet:Fish, assorted animal matter

Method of Capture:hook and line

Seasonality:first fish of spring

Uses:food, dried or fresh

Sources:

William Wood 1634

56: lamprons and lampreys not eaten much

Roger Williams 1643

Qunnamaug/ Qunnamaugsuck Lampries, the first that comes in the spring into fresh rivers (Long ones)

John Josselyn 1674

79: some they dry as they do lampreys and oysters which are a delicate breakfast meat so

ordered,

100: Their fishing follows spring, summer and fall of the leaf. First for lobsters, clams, flouke, lumps or plaise, and alewives, afterwards for bass, cod, rock, bluefish, salmon, lampreys and such.

140: salmon and lamprey taken at Saco river falls

MACKEREL (ATLANTIC AND CHUB)

Scomber scombrus Scomber japonicus

Size:up to 22"; up to 25"

Habitat:Over continetal shelf in water below 68 degrees fairenheit; in warm water over continental shelf travel in large schools

Diet:smaller fish such as herring

Method of capture:net, hook and line

Seasonality:May to September, larger ones in spring

Uses:bait for bass, food

Sources:

Gosnold 1602

48: saw mackerel

Pring 1603

60: June- August saw mackerel

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw mackerel

William Wood 1634

56: 2 sorts, in the beginning of the year are the great ones, on the coast 18" long, in summmer from May to August, come smaller ones. Taken with drails, which is along line with a lead and a hook at the end of it and is baited with a bit of red cloth.

Thomas Morton 1637

87: Mackerel- are the bait for the bass, and they have been chased into the shallow waters where so many thousands have shot themselves ashore, whole hogsheads have

been taken up in the sands. Have measured some 18-19" long and seven inches in

breadth. This fish is good salted for store against the winter as well as fresh and to be accounted a good commodity.

John Josselyn 1674

77: of which there is choiceful plenty in all summmer long, in the spring they are

ordinarily 18 inches long, afterwards there are none taken but that are smaller.

135: caught a store of mackerel in September

140: These come when the alewives pass up the river, to be caught in rivers (April), in lobster time at the rocks (May) and in mackerel time in the bays (June to August), at Michelmas in the seas (around September 29). When they used to tide in and

out of the rivers and creeks, the English cross the mouths of the creek at high tide

with a sein net, sometimes 2-3000 at a time, salted and used

Natick Dictionary

184: wawwhunnekesuog from wunnogkesu he is fat, the mackerel wawwhunnekesuog from wunne-aunekesuog they are finely painted/ have handsome colors

Roger Williams 1643

180: wunnekesuog Mackerel

Archaeological sites

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay, Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al. 1983)

MULLET, STRIPED

Mugil cephalus

Size:to 18"

Habitat:coasts, estuaries, fresh water. Spawning takes place in the sea

Diet:algae and detritus

Method of Capture:Dip or tidal nets

Seasonality:warm weather

Uses:Food

Sources:

Pring 1603

60: June- August saw mullets

John Smith 1614

231: May-August mullet

232: Mullets 2-4' long much like salmon

FRESH WATER FISH

White Perch: Morone americana

Lake Trout:

Brook Trout:

Chain Pickeral (Pike)

Carp:

Bluegill Sunfish:

Catfish:

Size:up to 15":

Habitat:Plentiful in ponds connected to sea and in ocean in shallow water;

Diet:Small fish

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:Fresh water April to June, Sat water June to April

Uses:

Sources:

William Wood 1634

108: in summer seldom fish anywhere but salt water, winter in fresh water, and

ponds. In winter they cut holes in the ice catching pikes, perches, breames, and other fresh water fish

Thomas Morton 1637

91: There are in the rivers and ponds, excellant trouts, carpes, breams, pikes, roches, perches, teaches, eeles. Natives of the inland parts but hooks of us to catch them with, a trout hook is worth a beaver skin.

John Josselyn 1674

79: trouts be in good store in every brook, ordinarilly 2 and 20 inches long, their grease is good for piles and clifts

Natick Dictionary

59: mishqushkou trout mishqui-sh-koo red spines

Roger Williams 1643

Qunosuog A fresh fish

Which the Indians break the ice for in Fresh Ponds, when they take also many other sorts; for, to my knowledge the country yields many sorts of other fish, which I mention not.

Archaeological Sites

Hirundo and Young Sites, Pushaw River, Maine (Borstel 1982; Sanger et al 1977)

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River, Connecticut (Waters 1965)

Woodruff Rockshelter Site, Lake Waramaug, Connecticut (Swigart 1986)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

POLLOCK

Pollachius virens

Size:to 3'6".4-15 pounds

Habitat:Usually over rocks to a depth of 100 fathoms sometimes midwater or at surface very common in the Gulf of Maine

Method of Capture:Hook and line from a boat

Seasonality:Jnauary to March and November to December

Uses:Food

Sources:

Natick Dictionary

110: osacontuck Hake or pollack osa (hose)-(always, day by day) con(kon) (speared) -

tuck (river or sea) always speared in the sea(?)

Archaeological Sites

Wheeler site on the Merrimac River, Massachusetts (Barber 1982)

Great Diamond Island Site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984)

Mosher Island site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984).

SCUP/ PORGY

Stenotomus versicolor

Size:to 2'

Habitat:Inshore and in deep water, not many caught north of Cape Cod

Diet:invertebrates such as sea urchins

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:June to September

Uses:Food; smoked or used fresh

Sources:

Roger Williams 1643

Mishcup/ Mishcupauog Sequanamauquock Breame

Of this fish there is abundance, which the natives dry in the sun and smoke, and some English begin to salt; both ways they keep all the year; and it is hoped it may be as well accepted as Cod at a market and better, if once known

Archaeological Sites

Vincent Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:44)

Peterson Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:44)

Hornblower II Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:44)

Cunningham Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:44)

SHARKS

Sand Tiger Shark: Odontaspis taurus

Blue Shark: Prionace glauca

Mackerel Shark family: Lamna nasus

Dusky Shark: Carcharhihus obscurus

Great White Shark: Carcharodon carcharias

Size:to 10'; to 12' 7";up to 6' ; to 11'; to 21'

Habitat:Shallow coastal waters and far out to sea from surface to deep water

Diet:Fish, sea mammals, sea birds

Method of Capture:Hook and line, spear?

Seasonality:Summer months

Uses:Food, tools, beads

Sources:

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw shark

William Wood 1634

54: The shark is a kind of fish as big as a man, some as big as a horse, with three rows of teeth within the mouth, with which he snaps asunder the fisherman's lines if he be not very circumspect. This fish will leap at a man's hand if it be overboard and with his teeth snap off a man's leg or hand if he be swimming. These are often taken, being good for nothing but to put on the ground for manuring of the land.

Josselyn's Second Voyage 1674

76: Sharks there are infinite store who tear the fisherman's nets to their great loss and hinderance; they are of two sorts, one flat headed, the other long snouted, the precious stone in their heads (sovereign for the stone in man) so much coveted by the travelling Chirurgeon is nought else but the brains of the flat headed sharke.

Archaeological Sites

Ram Psture Site, Nantucket Sand shark (Carcharias taurus) (Carlson)

Burr's Hill Site, Warren, Rhode Island (Great White Shark)

Greenwhich Cove Site (Bernstein 1992:95)

SHORTHORN SCULPIN (SEA RAVEN) STRIPED SEA ROBIN

Myoxocephalus scorpius Hemitripterus americanus

Size:up to 2'; up to 1' 4"'

Habitat: Bottom dwellers: sea robin from Cape Cod south

Method of Capture:hook and line, possibly accidentally when fishing for other fish

Seasonality:April to August warm water resident

Uses:Food

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Herracator Swamp site, Nantucket (Carlson)

Hornblower II site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:45)

Greenwhich Cove Site, Rhode Island (Bernstein 1992: 62)

Ram Pasture site, Nantucket (Carlson 1986)

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986)

Boothbay Harbor region Sites (Carlson 1986)

Great Diamond Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Peterson Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969:41-44)

Fernald Point Site, Mount Desert Island, Maine (Carlson 1980, Sanger 1980, 1982)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay, Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

Turner farm Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al 1983)

SKATE, LITTLE

Raja erinacea

Size:to 1 3/4"

Habitat:sandy or pebbly bottom in relatively shallow water

Diet:Crabs, shrimps, mollusks, squid

Method of Capture:Spear

Seasonality:warm weather

Uses:Food

Sources:

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

164- December 18, Plymouth harbor, innumerable store of skate

: William Wood 1634

55: thornbacks and skates is given to the dogs, being not counted worth the dressing in many places

Archaeological Sites

Peckham Farm Site, Sakonnet Rhode Island (PAL 1993)

SMELT

Osmerus mordax

Size:up to 14"

Habitat:inshore often near estuaries

Diet:small crustacea

Method of Capture:net, basket

Seasonality:

January to May and September to December in Bays

March to August in rivers

Uses:Food

Sources:

John Pory 1622

08: Into another river some two miles to the northeast of Plymouth (a stream running

from Smelt Pond to Plymouth Bay, entering it at the mouth of the Jones River,

about two miles northwest of Plymouth), all the month of May the great smelts

pass up to spawn, likewise in troops innumerable, which with a scoop or bowl, or

a piece of bark, a man may cast upon the bank.

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

166: December 19, eels and smelts into town brook in autumn

William Wood 1634

9: Smelts- so abundant savages take them up with baskets.

Natick Dictionary

61: moamitteaug smelt from mohmoeau they go together in great numbers

STURGEON

Acipenser slurio.

Size:over 10'

Habitat:Fresh and salt water

Diet:small fish

Method of Capture:nets or spearing at night

Seasonality:May-July

Uses:food, swim bladders for glue

Sources:

John Smith 1614

242: Cape Cod, saw sturgeon

231: May-August sturgeon

Emmanual Altham 1623

25: Here are a great store of sturgeon- I mean abundance.

William Wood 1634

55: best catching on the shoals of Cape Cod and on the Merrimack River, much taken, pickled and bought to England. Some 12-18' long

107: they make very strong sturgeon nets with which they catch 12-18' fish in day time. In nighttime they take to their birchen boats in which they carry a 40 fathom line

with a sharp bearded dart fastened at one end. Then lighting a torch made of birch

rinds, they weave it to and again by their boa sides which the sturgeon much

delighted, come and tumble and play, turning up his white belly into which they

thrust the lance, the back being impenatrable.

Thomas Morton 1637

88: Sturgeon- every man in New England may catch what he will, there are multitudes of them they are much fatter than in England, they do not look white but yellow, which make a cook perfume. Salted and pickled they are the best preserved when they are yellower and fatter. For the taste I warrent of Ladies of worth, with choice pallets for their commendations who liked the taste so well they esteem it beyond the sturgeon of other parts.

Roger Williams 1643

180: Kauposh/ Kauposhshauog Sturgeon (he is shut up or protected)

Diverse parts of this country abound with this fish; yet natives for their goodness and greatness of it, much prize it, and will neither furnish the English with so many,

nor so cheap, that any great trade is to be made of it, until the English themselves

are fit to follow the fishing The natives venture one or two in a canoe, and with a

harping iron, sticke this fish and haul it into the canoe, sometimes they take them

by their nets, which they make of strong hemp.

Josselyn, Rarieties 1673

32: Sturgeon- sounds made into isinglas, a kind of glue much use in physick, This fish is here in great plenty, and in some rivers so numerous, that it is hazardous for

canoes and the like small vessels to pass to and again, as in Pechipscut River to

the eastward

John Josselyn 1674

76: Sturgeon- I have seen some that are 16' long, their sounds make isinglass (glue)

100: being in their canoes, striking them with a fisgig, a kind of dart or staff, to the lower end wherof the fasten a sharp jagged bone (since they make them of iron) with a string attached to it, as soon as the fish is struck they pull away the staff, laeving

the bony head fastened in the fishes body and the string to the canoe, this way they take sturgeon, and in the dark evenings when they are upon the fishing ground

near a Bar of Sand (where the sturgeon feeds upon small fishes (like eels) that are

called lances sucking them out of the sands where they lye hid, with their hollow

trunks, for other mouths they have none) the Indians light a piece of dry birch brak

which breaks out into flame and holds it over the side of the canoe, the sturgoen

seeing this glaring light mounts to the surface of the water where he is slain and

taken with the fisgig.

140: Black River as most rivers in New England is barred with a bank of sand where the

Indians take bass and Sturgeon.

Natick Dictionary

30: Kaskohat sturgeon

30: kauposh (kauposhauog) sturgeon from kuppi he is shut up or enclosed

40: kopposh sturgeon

Archaeological Sites

Ram Pasture Site, Nantucket (Carlson)

Herracator Swamp site, Nantucket (Carlson)

Quaise Site, Nantucket (Carlson)

Quidnet Site, Nantucket (Carlson)

Goddard Site, Maine: (Bourque and Cox 1981:18)

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986a)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Buswell Site, Merrimack River, Massachusetts (Barber 1980)

Wheeler's Site, Merrimack River, Massachusetts (Barber 1982)

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River Connecticut: (Waters 1965)

Hirundo and Young Sites, Pushaw River Maine: (Borstel 1982; Sanger et al 1977)

Sears Island Site, Penobscot Bay Maine (Spiess and Hedden 1983: 77)

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986b)

Basin Site, Phippsburg Maine (Waters 1965)

Great Diamond Island Site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984)

Vincent Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Peterson Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Seaside Indian Village Site, Milford harbor Connecticut (Coffin 1963:14)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984)

Hornblower II Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Pratt Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Frazer Point Site, Frenchman Bay Maine (Carlson 1981, Sanger 1982)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot Bay Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al. 1983)(

SWORDFISH

Xiphias gladius

Size:to 15'

Habitat:surface near shore and in open oceans to depths of at least 33 fathoms

Diet:Crustaceans, squids, fish.

Method of Capture:Spear

Seasonality:Warm weather

Uses:Food, tools

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Kidder Point Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Speiss and Heddon 1983)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

Turner Farm Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al. 1983)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

GreatDiamond Island Site, Casco Bay, Maine (Yesner 1984)

TAUTOG

Tautoga onitis

Size:to 3'

Habitat:Coastal waters, usually at depths of less than 60' near steep rocky shores, mussel beds: nearshore waters during summer feed almost exclusively on blue mussel and live near rocky habitats in shallow water

Diet:shelled invertebrates

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:April to October

Uses:Food

Sources:

Edward Winslow 1621-1625

211: July 5, Massasoit brought 2 fish they had shot, like bream but 3 times as big,

probably tautog

Natick Dictionary

160: taut-og possibly from the Mohegan word tautog which means black

Roger Williams 1643

Taut/ Tautauog Sheeps heads

Archaeological Sites

Hornblower II site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 45)

Greenwhich Cove, Rhode Island (Bernstein 1992: 95)

Fort Shantok Site, Thames River Connecticut (Waters 1965)

Peterson Site, Martha's Vinyard(Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Calf Island Site, Boston Harbor (Luedtke 1980)

Pratt Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

Cunningham Site, Martha's Vinyard (Ritchie 1969: 41-44)

TOMCOD

Microgadus tomcod

Size:up to 15"

Habitat:inshore fish frequenting mouths of streams and estuaries

Diet:Fish and crustaceans

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:Winter

Uses:Food

Sources:

Roger Williams 1643

183: Paponaumsuog A winter fish

Which comes up in the brooks and rivulets, some call them a frost fish, from their coming up from the sea into fresh brooks in times of frost and snow.

John Josselyn 1674

80: the frost fish is a little bigger than a grudgeon and are taken in fresh brooks; when the

waters are frozen they make ahole in the ice

Natick Dictionary

131: poponaumsuog winter fish tomcod

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Region: Sheepscot and Damariscotta Sites, Maine (Carlson 1986a)

Seabrook Marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986b)

Mosher Island Site, Casco Bay Maine (Yesner 1984)

Long Island Site, Boston Harbor (Carlson 1986a)

Turner farm Site, Penobscot Bay, Maine (Morse 1975, Bourque 1975, Speiss et al. 1983)

WEAKFISH

Cynoscion regalis

Size:to 35"

Habitat:Shallow coastal waters over mud or sand; summer feeding and nursery grounds

in estuaries, center of abundance in Mid-Atlantic states, but occurrs as far north as

Cape Cod, rarely further north

Diet:Fish

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:coastal water late spring and summer, offshore in winter

Uses:Food

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Seabrook marsh Site, New Hampshire (Robinson 1985)

Greenwhich Cove, Rhode Island (Bernstein 1992:94)

WOLFFISH

Anarhichas lupus

Size:to 5'

Habitat:over hard bottoms from near shore to depths of over 85 fathoms, not often further north than Cape Cod

Diet:Mollusks, echinoderms and crustaceans

Method of Capture:Hook and line

Seasonality:Year round

Uses:Food

Sources:

Archaeological Sites

Boothbay Harbor Region Sites (Carlson 1986b)