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1994 Reinterpretation: Artifacts

When the material excavated by Lombard in the 1920s was reexamined in 1994 it was being stored in two wooden crates in the attic of the Aptucxet Trading Post Museum with the more important finds being on display in the east room of the reconstructed house. Since the main focus of the 1920s excavations had been the house structure itself, that the artifacts most likely represent those which were deposited at the time when the site was no longer inhabited, they represent the terminal date of the site. This would prove valuable later when the actual inhabitants of the sites were being determined. During the reanalysis, the site was examined without any prejudice regarding what should be expected, but with the intention of determining what artifact classes were present, when does the material date from, and what does it represent.

Many archaeological collections, some of which had been excavated over 100 years ago, are currently being analyzed or re-analyzed. Often in the past excavators have been content with excavating a site, publishing a limited account of their findings and storing the materials away for the future. Plimoth Plantation in the 1960s and 70s was a prime example of this. The Plantation holds the material recovered from over fourteen historical sites ranging from circa 1630 to the twentieth century. These were excavated in the 1960s and 70s and as much as at least a third of the material is unwashed. Douglas George and Mary Beaudry, in 1987, published the most in depth findings from three of the sites held by Plantation (Beudry 1987).

Reanalysis of old collections with new interpretative techniques allow a fuller comprehension of the sites themselves and adds to the archaeological database available to other researchers. As fewer and fewer sites are able to be excavated, old collections will one-day form the backbone of the archaeologist's job. The assemblage from the Aptucxet museum site was re-analyzed with the presumption that this site, excavated over 70 years ago has something to communicate to us about its inhabitants. On the basis of the findings from the 1994 reanalysis, fieldwork was carried out in 1995 at the site to gain a fuller understanding of the cultural context within which these artifacts were used.

Methodology

When the collection was initially viewed, no catalog of the material was present but all artifact classes were in good condition with some spalling of iron artifacts. Some of the more diagnostic artifacts were on display on the main floor of the museum, and these are in very poor condition. The objective of this reanalysis was to determine if there was any evidence that any portion of this assemblage dated to the early seventeenth century.

The collection was cataloged, every artifact class was analyzed and every attempt possible was made to date them. An unabridged analysis of the collection was compiled for a practicum report in 1994. The ceramics and clay pipes will be discussed first, to place the site temporally. These two artifact classes have been shown to be the best indicators with which to date an archaeological site. The fact that the collection was excavated from the cellar holes and that it represents material probably used at the end of the habitation of the structure, was born in mind as the analysis began. The potential bias of this collection was noted, but as will be seen when the 1995 field school analysis is discussed, the cellar hole in fact contained limited evidence for the entire occupation of the site. The ceramics and clay tobacco pipes from the 1995 field season were compared with those recovered from Lombard's excavation and were found to complement one another quite well.

The objectives of this reevaluation were two fold. First, the artifacts were reexamined to determine what classes are represented and when they date to. Second, the architectural evidence that Lombard uncovered was reevaluated. Since the architecture that would be expected at an early seventeenth century site was reviewed in a previous chapter, the architecture that was actually present needs to be reviewed. This was done to see how well it fit with the expected architectural profile. This too will help to place the site temporally.

Artifact Analysis

The artifacts which were recovered from the excavations represent a group of materials which all seem to date to the late seventeenth to early eighteenth century. Although some loss of a few fish bones and metal has occurred over the past 70 years, the materials is generally in a stable condition and matched up to Lombard's catalog accurately (Appendix 1).

Ceramics

Ceramics make up the largest single grouping of materials recovered from the site, (32.7%) of the 488 pieces in the collection. There is a minimum of 43 vessels present in the assemblage, most of them redware, as is very typical of colonial assemblages in New England. Tin-glazed ceramics make up the second largest type of ceramic, followed by slipware and mottled ware, with stoneware surprisingly coming in last.

Table 1

Form

Redware

Tin-glazed

Slipware

Mottled

Stoneware

 

Tall pan

6

       

6

Milk Pan

3

       

3

Mug

6

   

2

2

10

Cup

   

2

   

2

Chamber Pot

2

       

2

Jar

8

       

8

Plate

2

2

     

4

Punch Bowl

 

2

     

2

Basin

 

1

     

1

Med. pot

 

1

     

1

Jug

     

1

 

1

Unknown

   

1

 

1

2

TOTAL

27

6

3

3

3

43

The ceramic forms in the above table follow Beaudry's Potomac Typological System (Beaudry 1988). The tall pan, also called a pan/ pudding, pastry, or patty, is a "coarse earthenware cooking vessel, roughly the shape of an inverted, truncated cone, less than 10" in diameter" (Beaudry 1988:65). The vessels from the site are of redware with a clear to brown glaze on the interior and a thick rolled rim. The range in size (measured on the exterior rim) from 7" (n=1) to 7 1/2 (n=1) to 8 1/2" (n=2) to 10 1/2" (n=1) and one unknown size. Although one of the vessels is just over 10" in diameter, based on other characteristics, it is believed to be a pan.

Milk pans are over 10" in diameter and are similar in shape to the pans and were used for cooling milk, as wash basins and probably for cooking (Beaudry 1988:65). The three vessels from the site are redware and two are glazed on the interior only with a dark honey colored glaze while one is glazed on the interior and exterior with a dark matte brown glaze. The exterior rim diameters of the vessels are 11 1/2" (n=2) and one was two fragmentary to measure.

Mugs are single handled, strait sided drinking vessels, taller than wide, and ranging from 1 gill (1/4 pint) to over 2 quarts (Beaudry1988:60). The assemblage contains 10 vessels of three different types of ceramics. Six redware mugs glazed on the interior and exterior in colors ranging from a clear to a dark brown and with only one rim measurable to 3 1/2" exterior diameter. The two stoneware mugs are of a type produced in the Westerwald region of Germany from 1700-1775. One mug has a rim diameter of 4" and bears the coat of arms of Queen Anne of England, which dates it to 1702-1714 when she reigned. The other bears the coat of arms of possibly George I which would date it 1714-1720. The final two mugs are of English mottled ware which is which is a buff bodied English earthenware with a mottled colored exterior glaze and a light colored interior glaze. The diameter at the rim of one vessel is 2" and this is similar to a vessel found at Pemaquid, Maine (Bradley 1994:147). Mottled ware dates to the early eighteenth century.

Two cups are in the collection, both of which are of English slipware with a yellow exterior and interior glaze and brown combed and/or dotted patterns on the exterior. Cups differ from mugs mainly in their size, being only of a pint in capacity. Both of the cups were probably produced in the Staffordshire region of England. One is 2 1/2" tall and is of a type called "dotware" produced from 1685-1720 (Heritage Plantation 1994:50). The other bears a combed design and dates from 1670-1795.

Two redware vessels are identified as chamber pots because they are glazed on the interior and exterior and they of the correct thickness for a chamber pot. One is glazed on the interior and exterior with a red brown glaze while the other has a clear glaze on the interior and a clear glaze with a brushed slip decoration on the exterior. Brushed slip decoration is very characteristic of vessels produced around Boston, Massachusetts in the late seventeenth century.

The largest numbers of vessels from the site are in the form of pots. Pots, also called butter pots, are large cylindrical or slightly convex-sided vessels, taller than wide, with some of their possible uses being for souring cream, storing butter and lard (Beaudry 1988:66). The glaze colors for the eight vessels, all redware, range from clear to a dark red brown but they are only glazed on the interior. Their rim sizes range from 4 1/2" (N=1), 5 1/2" (N=1), 6 1/2" (N=2), 7 " (N=1), 7 1/2" (N=1), with two vessels being unmeasurable.

Plates are represented at the site by four vessels of two ceramic types. Two of the plates are of redware. One is glazed on the interior and exterior with a dark brown glaze and is very thermally deformed, presumably from the fire that destroyed the house. The other has a light olive green glaze on the interior with a trailed slip design containing green flecks of copper. Green copper flecking was noted as being a common decorative technique used by New England potters such as James Kettle of Salem from 1687-1709/10 (Watkins 1950:15). The other two plates are tin-glazed. One has a blue and white design on the interior. The other has a blue smudge design on the interior.

Two "punch" bowls, both of tin-glazed earthenware, are represented in the assemblage. According to Beaudry, punch bowls were "hemispherical vessels with a plain rim....They range in capacity from 1/2 pint to several gallons. The smallest sizes were used by individuals for drinking punch and perhaps eating semi-solid foods..." (Beaudry 1985:63). One of the bowls has a purple speckled interior and exterior glaze. A similar colored vessel was found at the Major John Bradford site in Kingston, Massachusetts that dates from 1675-1725. The other bowl has a turquoise colored glaze and black design on the interior and exterior. Sherds of a vessel with a similar shape and color were found at the Joseph Howland site at Rock Nook that dates from 1675 to 1725-30. It may be Spanish or Mediterranean.

One basin, which is defined as an open vessel with convex sides of greater width than depth, having a brim or everted lip and used for washing, shaving and dining, was found almost complete (Beaudry 1985:63). This vessel has a blue dash design on the rim and a debased large floral design on the interior. The height is 3 3/4" and the diameter is 10" at the rim and 5" at the base. Heritage Plantation (1994:63) dates this vessel from 1660 to 1690. The general stylistic traits of the central floral design and the blue dashes along the rim appear to be reminiscent of the famous blue dash chargers produced in England and Holland. This form and the decoration appear to be a debased version of this earlier finer form. The flowers and fruit are abstract and the form itself, a basin, does not appear to have been as common during the earlier period of production for the blue dash chargers.

One tin-glazed medicine pot, also called a galley pot, was found. These vessels were used to store drugs, condiments, ointments, cosmetics and condiments. The vessel from the excavations is of a shape that dates from 1690-1780, by Hume's dating (Hume 1969:205, Figure 67 4 or 5).

One jug or pitcher possibly of English mottled ware was found. The interior is coated with an olive glaze while the exterior has the same glaze with a trailed slip design on top of it. The diameter at the rim is 4 1/2" and appears to be similar to an example from Pemaquid, Maine where it is dated to the early eighteenth century (Bradley 1994:147).

Two vessels were unidentified, one being of slipware and one of stoneware. A more concise description of the vessels that were identified and their profiles is presented in Appendix 2. A number of vessels were burned and warped. Initially it was thought that these might be the wasters from pottery production. Some loss is always incured when making pottery and often times some vessels are over fired and some are under fired. When a redware vessel has been in very hot fire, the body tends to warp and twist. This is exactly what these vessels exhibit. Very likely, they were in the house when it burned and this would result in their deformation.

Clay Tobacco Pipes

The various ways that tobacco pipes are used by archaeologists to date sites has been outlined above and will not be repeated here. The fragments of clay pipe stems from the Lombard's excavation of the cellar holes are strongly biased towards the small stem bores as seen in Figure 13. Particularly to the 5/64" bores (N=140) as compared to the second most common type, 6/64" (N=73). This bias towards the pipes dating to the 1710-1750 period is reflected also in the pipe bowls. The few maker's marks found on some of the stems support this date range although they are a little earlier.

Figure 13

As can be seen in Figure 14, the pipe bowl shapes of the 5/64" size are of a type that was common from the late seventeenth through the eighteenth century (Faulkner 1987:167).

The 6/64" bowls are represented by three styles. The first (Figure 14) was common from the middle to late seventeenth century and the maker's mark on the stem are from the manufacturer Llewelyn Evans of Bristol, England who was making pipes from 1661 to 1688/9 (Walker 1977:1131-1132). The second type is shown in Figure 14. This shape may represent the earlier work of Robert Tippett since it has the same form as the ones above with 5/64" bore diameters. This final shape was noted by Faulkner as being a heelless funnel shape which became popular after 1660 and remained so through the next century (Faulkner 1987: 171).

The 7/64" bowls (Figure 14) are of a shape that was common in the middle of the seventeenth century and has been found at Cushnoc, Pemaquid, and Pentagoet. Faulkner reports that this form was common from 1650 to 1680 (Faulkner 1987:168). Several of the stems bear the mark of Llewelyn Evans (1661-1688/9).

Two marked bowls whose stem bores can not be determined have the mark shown in Figure 14 on the sides of their bowls. It belongs to Robert Tippet who was manufacturing pipes in Bristol, England from 1660 to 1720. These type of pipes have been reported from a number of sites including Pemaquid, Maine (Walker 1977: 1498-1501).

The marked stems found all have maker's marks that can be attributed to William Evans who may have taken over the manufacture of the Evans factory after 1688/9.

Glass

The glass from the site is of six main types with subdivisions within them. The first and most common type is the wine bottle. There are at least four wine bottles present, all of them represented by fragments of the rims and/ or bases. The vessels that were present, when they presented a discernible shape, are illustrated in Figure 16.

The first type is one that is dated by Hume as to have occurred from 1698 to 1700. This bottle is a squat bulbous bodied bottle which would have been approximately 5 1/2 inches high when it was whole. Three of the bottles are of this type. The second type is possibly of a similar shape but is made of a dark blue colored glass. Only basal and body sherds represent this vessel. A similar colored bottle is in the collection at the Pilgrim Hall Museum in Plymouth, Massachusetts (Goldstein 1995).

One bottle is present which may represent a small medicine vial. It is made up of dark green glass and is represented by artifact number 135. Hume states that this color glass in vials and in bottles in general did not appear until the mid seventeenth and continued through the eighteenth century (Hume 1969: 74).The next bottle shape is a light green, thin, possible vial with a very symmetrical rim and flat lip. This bottle may be a later addition to the assemblage, possibly from when Batchelder was digging at the site. The neck shape does not fit any of the seventeenth and eighteenth century forms.

Vials and in bottles in general did not appear until the mid- seventeenth and continued through the eighteenth century (Hume 1969: 74).

One nineteenth century patent medicine bottle was found. This bottle was made of solarized glass and is represented by artifact numbers 73 and 44. This too may be a later addition by Batchelder or someone else in the nineteenth or twentieth centuries.

One other patent medicine bottle may have come from an area to the east of the main house. This may have been uncovered in 1971 when a new herb garden was dug. This bottle is of solarized glass, has a mold seam 3/4 of the way up the neck and bears the following embossing on it: HARTSHORN AND SONSI EST 1850/ BOSTON. The mold seam 3/4 the way up the neck roughly dates the bottle to between 1890 and 1900 (Cleveland 1988: V). This bottle, if found on the site, may date to the time of Batchelders excavations.

Two drinking glasses are represented in the collection. One is a base with a scalloped basal edge. Made out of clear glass this may be a nineteenth or twentieth century molded form. The other is an enameled drinking glass fragment with a design consisting of a white scalloped band on the exterior of the glass followed by a red band followed by a yellow band that is finally followed by a white design. The earliest reference to enameled glass found at a site is from the Ambler House in Jamestown, Virginia that was occupied from 1710 to 1898 (Cotter 1958:80). Hume attributes many of the examples of enameled glass to the Henry William Steigel glasshouse at Manheim, Pennsylvania (1763-1774). It is not even known if this piece was found on the Aptucxet property although it is likely, since this piece exhibits many attributes which appear to identify it as Steigel like, similar to those pictured in American Glass (McKearin 1989:plate 30).

The final class of glass from the site is the diamond shaped window quarrels. 161 fragments are represented in the collection with only three being numbered. Window quarrels are first noted in the Plymouth Colony records in 1641 (Demos 1970:29). It seems that after about 1640 or 1650 that these windows were commonplace.

Metal

The metal artifacts from the excavation can be divided into six main groupings. These are architecturally related materials, horse equipment, tools, kitchenware, personal material and other. These artifacts are illustrated in Figure 17.

Architectural

The architectural material includes the subdivisions of nails, keys, and window kame lead. The nails from the site can be divided into four categories. These are summarized in the table below:

Table 2

Size

4 1/4"

2 1/2"

1 1/2"

Unknown

Count

12

54

35

35

The nails were found throughout the excavations but the only ones listed in Lombards inventory are artifact numbers 13, 29, 48, 142, 153, and 198. All are hand wrought. The very low amount of nails on the site supports the notion that the structure was dismantled or moved and all that could be removed and reused was. The paucity of nails could also be the result of Lombard not consistently using a screen in his excavations, so that many of the nails were merely missed.

There is one key present at the site (artifact number 87). It is 6" long, 2 14" wide at the ring end and 1 1/2" wide at the tip end. The key is of a type, which would be called a plain stock-lock key (Hume 1969:248). The fact that on the inside of the bow there is not much of projection, may mean that it dates to the eighteenth century as opposed to the seventeenth when there was a projection on the inside of the bow (Hume 196: 245, Bradley 191994:204). Keys similar to this one were found at the French site of Pentagoet and date from contexts of 1692 to 1729.

The lead from the windows is the final architectural item. Only one lead is recorded by Lombard this is number 198. Five other leads are now in the collection. All of them are of the standard H shape and at least 2 have the following printed on the interior :"W.M. 1675 I.P.". This is the manufacturers printing to insure quality control. These turned leads in generally date from the seventeenth into the first half of the eighteenth century (Hume 1969:233). Obviously, one with a date such as this indicates that at least this lead dated to the late seventeenth century. In fact, this lead may actually date the construction of the house itself.

 

Horses

Six objects relating to the use of horses at the site were recovered from Lombard's excavations. The first object (47) is an iron spur over 4" long and 4" wide and 5/8' thick at the heel end. This spur is very similar to one recovered from the Clarke and Lake Company site in Maine (1654-1676) except that the example from Aptucxet is somewhat smaller (Baker 1985:46)

The second object is a brass rosette boss with tinning to make it look almost silver (89) used on the cheekpiece of a horse that was anchored by 2 brass rivets to the cheekpiece. These bosses were used to hide the juncture of the mouthpiece with the cheekpiece. These bosses were used mostly on curb bits (Hume 1969:240). Bosses of the seventeenth century appear to have been very decorated while those of the eighteenth century were plainer. The typical boss of the eighteenth century was tinned (Hume 1969:240). Similar examples have been found in Virginia at Jamestown, but their contexts are unknown (Cotter 1958:176). The fact that the example from Aptucxet is fairly fancy and is tinned may place it in the late seventeenth to early eighteenth century period. It may be sort of a transitional form to the later plainer forms of the eighteenth century.

One piece of metal (72) that was described by Lombard as looking like a "shutter hinge". This object is one of the two curb bits found in the collection. The curb bit would go along with the boss described above. The two pieces found are from two separate bits, each slightly different. The curb bit differs from the other type of bit, the snaffle, in that the curb has a long ckeekpiece on either side of the bit. The examples from Aptucxet are 4 ½" long and the other is 6 ½" long. The longer one is almost identical to one illustrated by Hume as dating to the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century (Hume 1969:241). Interestingly enough the boss described above fits this piece. The other curb bit, the shorter one, appears to have broken just below the bit and probably would have been very similar to the longer example.

Artifact number 107 is a very plain stirrup. It has rounded sides, a solid rectangular platform, and a rectangular anchor for the strap loop. Hume describes this type and dates it to the late seventeenth to eighteenth century.

The final artifact relating to horses is a fragment of a horse or oxen shoe. It is 2 3/4" long and 1 3/16" wide with one hole.

Tools

The next category is that of tools. The first is a hoe, artifact number 28. It appears to be a grubbing hoe or a hoe that was used for preparing the soil for planting by drawing the soil towards the user ( Hume1969:241). This hoe exhibits a spiny reinforcement ridge on the blade that typifies hoes of the late seventeenth to early eighteenth century. The other hoe was the one found by Batchelder in 1865 in the western cellar in the "cuddy". It is a broad hoe that was used primarily for weeding after the soil had been broken up (Hume 1969:275). This hoe also seems to exhibit the reinforcement spine on the blade that would date it to the late seventeenth to early eighteenth century.

The next tool is a fragment of an axe head (90). Its condition does not lend itself to an further identification. There are also 2 scythe blade fragments (6), one rattail file, and a 7 3/4" long iron punch (number 140) which would have been used in metal working. None of these artifacts can be tightly dated.

Kitchenware

The kitchenware entails one of the largest categories of material from the site and one on which Lombard had placed a great deal of emphasis when dating the site. This category includes knives and spoons and kettle hardware. The first piece appears to be a hook and a link of chain. The hook is 3" long and the link is 4' long. These two items (124 and 190) may have been used in the kitchen but that is just a possibility. The hook is very similar in size and shape to one illustrated from Pemaquid as being a kitchen pot hook (Bradley 1994:177 and Hume 1974:76).

The next items are two brass kettle ears and several brass fragments probably from a kettle. One ear (190) was found in the cellar the other was recovered from somewhere at the site by Stephen Hayes Jr. of Bourne at sometime. This style of ear was recovered from Charleston Island and Fort Albany (ca. 1674) in James Bay (1681-1682) (Kenyon 1986:149) and at the William Bradford II house (1675-1725) in Kingston, Massachusetts. The brass fragments (120 and 161) may represent the reuse of a burned out or cracked kettle similar to that which is discussed by Faulkner in his work at Pentagoet (1987:156-158).

Two styles of table knives are present in the Aptucxet assemblage. The first consists of 2 pieces of bone riveted to a metal tang. The handle has a series of criss-crossed lines on it and a very similar example was found at Pemaquid and dates to the early to mid eighteenth century (Bradley 1994:180). This knife may have been found in the herb garden area. The other type of knife has a pointed tang on it that would have been inserted into a bone handle (45, 149, 85). The style is what Faulkner calls rat-tail which have oval and round balusters. These date from Pentagoet I and III (1635-1654 and 1670-1674) (Faulkner 1987: 242). One knife still maintains its bone handle (88) that is plainly undecorated.

There are 23 spoons present in the assemblage which appears to be a large number for a household, but actually does not seem to represent spoons which were used for eating but may have had other purposes as seen by the modifications present on them. Nine of the spoons have fig shaped bowls (50, 57, 58, 108, 177, 4 no numbers) and 10 have more oval bowls (26, 49, 59, 77, 146, 153, 155, and 5 no numbers). There are also two seal and baluster top handles, one trifid handle, one Puritan handle and one acorn top handle (3 no numbers, 82, 27). Two of the more oval bowls are made of pewter and were probably originally very similar (59 and one no number found in the herb garden). All of the spoons except the pewter ones have been tin washed.

Twelve of the spoon bowls are stamped with makers marks all of which occur on the upper surface of the bowl close to the stem juncture. The first mark is one single spoon in a circle, this occurs on an fig shaped bowl (1 no number). The second mark consists of three spoons within a circle, this mark occurs on four oval bowls (2 no numbers, 49, 77,) and 2 fig shaped bowls (58, 108). The third mark occurs on a fig bowl and is the three spoons with the words "DOUBLE WHITED" surrounding them within the circle (1 no number). The fourth mark occurs on an oval bowl and consists of a heart with the letters GP within it and the words "WHITED COVERED" surrounding the heart (177). The fifth mark occurs on a fig bowl is a thistle within a circle with the letters WW around it (4).The sixth mark occurs on an oval bowl and is the letters RP on the bowl(26). The seventh mark occurs on an oval bowl and is the letters IC on either side of a cross (155). The final mark is the date 1670 and the letters IB below it, this occurs on a fig shaped bowl (50).

The dating of these spoons is somewhat problematic because it seems that early seventeenth century spoon molds were still being used in the late seventeenth century. All of the dating done in this section comes from an article by Percy Raymond (1949). The fact that the spoon bowls are all tinned does help in dating though. Tinning was a technique which was introduced in middle of the seventeenth century, that is what the word whitened means in the makers mark on some of the spoons. The simple handle that is a flat stalk characterizes the Puritan spoon. Finally, the trifid, Pied de biche handle dates from 1663 to 1700. The two pewter spoon probably both looked similar to the one complete example found in the herb garden area. It can be called a wavy end spoon, which would date from 1690-1750. It is very similar to ones found on the Whydah (Heritage 1994:97) and at Pemaquid (Bradley 1994 185).

Seven of the spoons exhibit excessive wear and/or modifications. Two spoons (1 no number and 58) are worn at their distal ends, the no number one excessively. The seconds wear is consistent with its possible use in stirring by a right-handed person. Three of the other five spoons (57, 153, 177) have had their bowls bent into a funnel shape and bowl 108 has excessive burning evident on the exterior surface. What these spoons were probably used for was to heat up metal which have a low melting point such as pewter or lead to be poured into molds. As will be seen later, one of the buckles from the site appears to have been a roughcast in lead and was not smoothed. The final bowl (1 no number) had its handle bent in such a way that it would serve nicely as a ladle. So the fact that there are so many spoons at the site can be rectified by the fact that some of them have been modified to serve a different purpose than originally intended. In the late seventeenth and especially the early eighteenth centuries, these types of spoons may have been loosing their popularity and someone at the site may have purchased a number of them cheaply to use for metalworking.

Personal Items

The next category are items of a more personal nature. These items are more closely related to individual people who used them at the site. The first artifact is a lead cloth seal. These are relatively common finds on sites of the 17th and 18th century (Bradley 1994:212). The fact that this seal is from the site of what is being called the possible location of the Plimoth colon's first trading post raises the question of whether or not this item may relate to the Plimoth period of occupation 1627-1635. Bale seals are not uncommonly found on sites which are not directly related to trade or commerce, they do occur at homesites. Hume states that merchant seals of the eighteenth century were made only in two sections (Hume 1969:270). This is the type that is present at the structure. On one side there some numbers are scratched, although they are very hard to make out. They probably relate to lot numbers or clothe length. Many of the seals used specifically on cloth had this type of scratched marking (Adams 1989:22). It is also known that some of the women in Sandwich in the seventeenth century had large amounts of cloth and even Holland cloth in their homes which was presumably for making clothing. So it does not seem surprising to find a seal at a homesite.

Another item recovered from the site is a small silver coin bearing strange writing on both sides. It was identified as being an East Indian coin. Lombard stated that the writing on the coin is Arabic from the 17th to the 19th century. It is also possible that it is a coin of the Sultans in Atjih in Sumatra. There is a number on one side which is either 93 or 95 and this may date it to 1693/ 1695. A coin dealer in New York did both of these identifications. Lombard cites this as evidence of a link with the Dutch East Indies Company and thus a link to Aptucxet. A very similar coin is present at Plimoth Plantation and it is identified as having been produced in Yemen in 1691 (Davidson 1967:7). Any silver coin could be used as currency in the colonies because the value could be determined by the weight of the silver. As a result, tavern owners and other people dealing with many different types of specie owned scales to weigh the silver or gold no matter where it was from.

There are fragments from one chest lock in the collection (76). This type of lock was common in the seventeenth century and although it is in a fragmentary condition, it's shape is still discernible.

The next item of personal interest is a complete candle stand. It is made of brass and was probably made in either Holland or England (Hume 1969:240) and dates from the middle to late seventeenth century. The handle is 3 1/4" long and the base diameter is 4 3/4". There is a stamped design around the candleholder and on the handle and is stated to probably have been a fairly expensive item (Hume 1969:240). Lombard stated that he saw one in a Dutch genre painting by De Hooch that was dated to around 1650 (Lombard 1953: 14). Hume states that candlesticks with actual holes to hold the candle were not readily made until the middle seventeenth century (1970:91). This sheet brass candlestick would seem to me to be one of the less expensive forms that would have been available. There were much finer forms of solid metal that would have been more expensive, still, at this time such an item was probably considered a luxury item.

The next item is a scarab tip. It is made of brass and is said to have been

found by Dr. Batchelder in 1852 when he excavated at the site. The scarab tip went on the end of leather scarabs and acted as a reinforcement. The one found at the site is very similar to one recovered from Pemaquid in a post 1729 fill (Bradley 1994:80). Swords were very common in 17th century Sandwich inventories.

Two buckles and one possible buckle were recovered from the site. It is not

known where they were found but , they presently reside in the collection. The first is made of pewter and is a form that is very similar to one in brass recovered from the Edward Winslow house in Marshfield, Ma (1650-1700) (Heritage 1994: 86). It is also illustrated by Hume and dates from the second half of the 17th century and was used on belts (Hume1969:85). Hume also states that those at the lower end of the social ladder would be wearing pewter buckles while those higher up had brass ones and higher still would be silver (Hume 1969:86). The types of belts on which these were used were either sword or harnesses for horses.

The second buckle is similar to the first except that it is made of brass. It is similar to examples unearthed at Jamestown and probably dates to the same time period as the first (Cotter 1958:190).

The third possible buckle is a roughly cast lead, buckle half. There is much left over mold sprue on it and it appears to either have broken in half or was half cast. The fact that it has a small nipple in the center of the loop suggests that it is not a buckle as it would be difficult to put a tang on it, and is also very thick at the midpoint. It may be some sort of decorative item. It is interesting that this item was found along with the spoons that appear to have been modified to serve as ladles for metalworking. This may represent a home industry of metal making.

The next class of items is buttons. Three were in the collection and only one is known to have come from the site, although the other two also may have. The first two are cast brass with a tinning applied to their entire surface. This was often done as it was on spoons to make them look like silver. This seems to have been common in the late seventeenth century (Hume 1969:90). Both buttons appear to be solid example merely poured into molds and then their wire was applied while they dried, they were then tinned. The third button (67) is a tinned example which is very flat and is missing the rear of it. Also recovered, while it is not metal, was what appears to be a buttonmold made of steatite into which has been carved a circular depression. The steatite may have been found locally and was probably a fragment of a native Late Archaic steatite bowl, reworked by a colonial craftsman into the mold. From the marks on the inside of the hole it appears that it was carved with a metal knife. Interestingly enough, if this possible mold had been completed, it would have had the same diameter and a very similar depth to the two complete buttons described above. Examples of buttonmolds have been recovered from other 17th century houses such as the Edward Winslow site (1650-1700). It would seem that colonial farmers could have used simple technology such as melting pewter with modified latten spoons and stone molds to cheaply replace buttons or buckles, instead of buying them.

 

Stone

The next group of material is that of stone items which were recovered. These are divided into 4 classes: pestles; "stone counters"; sharpening stones; and flint. There are 3 pestles and broken pestles in the collection (22, 52, 60). Two are broken and one is whole. It is not too strange to find stone pestles at a colonial site. Mortars and pestles were commonly used by both natives and colonists for grinding native corn or herbs. They have also been recovered from other sites of the late 17th century such as the Edward Winslow site in Marshfield (1650-1700) and the Major Thomas Bradford site in Kingston (1675-1725). There is also one on display at the Jabez Howland house in downtown Plymouth. It would not seem unreasonable that if someone happened upon a native pestle they would keep it and use it. There is also no report by Lombard of an other native material being recovered from the excavations, except for an axe head found in the western cellar (29) and another two partially formed (176).

The second class is called stone "counters" by Lombard (138, 139). These are smooth pebbles averaging 2" in diameter and the appear quite natural.

The third class of stone material are sharpening stones, two of the pestles (52) which is broken lengthwise and 126 and the other four (113, 137, (2)160) are approximately five inches long, rectangular and smooth on all sides. The two represented by Number 160 were both called stone counters. These are not uncommon items to find on sites, at least one was found at the William Bradford II site in Kingston.

The final classes of stone items are fragments of light gray flint (39, 75, 109, 150). This may have come from the East Anglican mines in England (Hume 1970:220).

Architectural Stone

The final group of materials recovered are those which relate directly to the architecture of the site. The classes of this group are Brick, Plaster, and Doorstep/ Slate.

There were many bricks recovered from the site (3, 4, 8, 97-1 02, Box 10, Box 11, 195) and most of those which were suitable to be used for the reconstruction, were used to reconstruct the fireplace in the western room. The only complete brick which was measured was 8" x 4" x 2 1/2".

The plaster and mortar which was recovered (16, 17, 103, 143, 147, 199-214) is not separated in the notes as to which is plaster and which is mortar. The mortar is all shell tempered and was used to put up the foundations. The plaster would have come from the interior plastering of the walls. Some fragments show evidence of marsh grass being used as insulation between the exterior and the interior walls (Heritage 1994:22). According to Lombard, the building was studded, covered with lathes (pine) which were nailed to oak studding (Lombard 1953:28). One fragment of plaster also shows that the rooms were possible covered with pine sheathing which was beaded along one edge with an "ogee" beading. Since the beading was impressed on the plaster, it has to be assumed that the lathing was placed on the walls very soon after the plaster was placed on the walls. It is also possible that the plaster was placed over the board and this would account for the impression on the plaster.

The final type of architectural stonework are the pieces of the infamous "Trading Post Door Step" (18, 71, 104, 105, 153, 192). These are all gray slate and may represent a doorstep either inside or outside of the north or south door.

Faunal Material

The recovery and curation of faunal material by Lombard is another example of how he was ahead of his times. It is all but unheard of for faunal remains to have been saved from an excavation this early. All too often, archaeologists would dispose of the faunal remains just as they would the left over dirt or stones. Very, very few of them ever saved the bones. The faunal material in the collection came from two sources. The first was Lombards excavation and the second was a box labeled "Material from the Old Herb Garden".

Lombards material is outlined in more detail in appendix 3. Suffice it to say that he recovered evidence of cattle, swine, sheep, horses, deer, seagull and goose. The occurrence of the horse in the faunal inventory is interesting and may represent a dead animal thrown into the open hole, or it may also represent a food source. For example, the Massachusetts General Court in 1682 stated that Thomas Purdaine of Shawamett had the liberty to open an ordinary/victualling house in the town and that the state would provide him with beer, cider, and good horse meat (MGC 1682:88).

The herb garden material consisted mainly of the remains of two lambs. This sort of burial of very young kids has also been noted at the Clarke Garrison House site on the Plimoth Plantation property. The Clark Garrison inhumation dates to the eighteenth century when the area was being used as a pasture. The animal from Aptucxet may date from the same time period and may be from the time when the area was used for pasturage although this can not be proven at this time. The second feature about this assemblage is that it also contains faunal material which appears to be common domestic refuse mostly waste material from butchery. This material occurred at a much lower rate. It is not known where exactly this material came from. It is assumed though that it probably came from the southwestern portion of the south yard. This was an area where a great deal of faunal material was recovered during the 1995 field school.

Synthesis

The 1994 reanalysis of Lombard's excavations was the catalyst for a new interpretation of the site purported to be the Aptucxet trading house. None of the artifacts in the collection were found to date to before circa 1660. There were, however, a wide variety of materials represented from the cellar holes and these offered a glimpse in 1994, before research had begun to determine whose homesite it was, into the lifeways at the house.

The ceramics from the site show only the tendency noted in the ceramic assemblages from the early seventeenth century sites looked at earlier that redware predominated (Figure 18).

Figure 18

None of the early ceramics which would be expected at an early seventeenth century site were uncovered during Lombard's work. Looking at the distributions of the ceramics though, it can be seen that there is a pattern (Figure 19)

Figure 19

The greatest amount of ceramic material recovered by Lombard, ignoring the material whose provenience is not known, came from the eastern cellar and the central portion. Fragments from the redware vessels were found scattered across the entire area which was excavated but seem to be concentrated in the eastern cellar and in the central portion with only a few pieces occurring in the western cellar. The same is true for the other ceramic types, especially the tin-glazed, which only occurs in the eastern cellar. This trend is also mirrored in the other artifacts from the site (see Appendix 1).

There was a very low amount of nails and bricks found at the site, this, coupled with the distributions of the ceramics may point to the ultimate fate of the house. The house may have been dismantled and the parts used in other houses in the area, most likely by members of the Perry family. This is said to have happened to the Samuel Perry house which Batchelder said was located about 1/2 mile away and was built by one of the sons of Ezra Perry circa 1680. The sequence of dismantlement at this house may have been that the eastern half of the house was taken down first and then the central portion, with the western portion being the last part. This would result in most of the material being disposed of at the time ending up in the eastern cellar and the central portion and any left over ending up in the western cellar. This may also be why the western cellar contained ash, broken brick, fieldstones and shell, that is what was left to fill in that cellar hole.

Whoever lived here was a farmer who grew English corn crops, hence the presence of the scythes in the assemblage. They raised cattle, sheep or goats and swine as is apparent from the faunal assemblage and had horses as was also present in the faunal remains and from the horse equipment found. They, like just about everyone else at the time, probably raised cows for milk as is represented by the milk pans and pots in the ceramic assemblage. Wild fowl such as geese and gull were hunted probably using birdshot in a flintlock musket. Finally, the abundance of spoons which had been modified presumably for metal working, the rough cast possible lead buckle, the soapstone button mold, and the iron punch all suggest that there was a blacksmith at work here.

Appendix 1

Western Cellar:

10/11/26

many small pieces soft, brilliantly red brick

2 whole bricks SE corner 6" from floor

Several pieces glazed brick SE corner 6" from floor

(1) 1 piece blue glass 3" square SE corner 18" from floor

curved as if belonging to bowl, vase, teapot. Broke into 4 pieces.

(2) 1 piece same about 1 ½"square SE corner 18" from floor

2 pieces clay pipe stem Near SE corner 2 from floor

1 piece clay pipe bowl

(3) 3 bits of broken glass cover 2' along S wall from SE corner

with a coating (patina) 2 from floor

Many small pieces soft bright red brick All over

(4) 1 spoon bowl- handle had been Near SE corner 1' from floor

broken off close to bowl inside bowl below where handle joined was mark

Mixture of ashes, fine All over

bits of charcoal probably ground and ground brick

Many bones of some kind of 1' above floor

animal

(5) 4 pieces sanded glass Near S wall 1 from floor

Oyster, quahog, clam shell All along S wall near surface

Fish bones many small

10/12/26

10 more pieces of slate stone chips found Near middle of S wall

Several pieces glazed brick Near center of N wall near floor

2 whole and 1/2 brick

(6) 3 pieces blue glass

Several pieces clay pipe stem

1 clay pipe bowl-lower portion

(7) 2 jaw bones belonging to animal

bones of which were found 10/11/26

(8) Much of the mixture of Much in SE corner

ashes, lime, charcoal and brick

(9) 4 pieces of very thin window glass

10/13/26

(10) 2 pieces gray bowl raised Opposite western wall to center of design and with 2 broad blue bands. pit

Similar to Dutch slip ware

(11) 2 pieces blue glass same as yesterday

(12) 1 neck of a bottle or flask of same blue glass

More broken thin glass

(13) 4 pieces brown earthenware. Glazed interior surface

Depth of article 4 1/4" 14" wide

1 almost whole bowl of clay pipe

2 pieces clay pipe stem, 1 with stamped zig-zag design

4 nails

Mixture of ash, lime and charcoal continues to be found near floor

(14) 2 pieces glazed jug greenish with yellow wavy lines

(15) Peculiar shaped stone like hoe, is nothing

10/14/26

(16) Mortar from west wall

(17) Mortar from east wall

(18) Large piece gray slate door step

Bones of another pig with tusk Middle near N wall

(19) 2 pieces greenish glass, thinner than blue glass

2 pieces pipe stem

(20) 1 piece red glazed clay pottery

(21) 1 piece brown glazed clay pottery

(22) 1 stone pestle, broken

(23, 24) 2 piece wood knots

10/15/26

(25) (No data entered by Lombard)

(26) 1 spoon bowl with part of handle, Down low about 6" above

RB stamped inside bowl ash/ lime mixture, close to

tree

(27) 1 spoon handle with acorn or strawberry Found 6-7" from first spoon bowl on end

(28) 1 "English" hoe Near bottom of ash layer

(29) 1 stone skinning knife

Several hand wrought nails

(30) 1 large tooth (horse) 10/27 found rest of it Down low under tree

10/15/26

(31) 1 piece gray slip ware like #10 Near central portion 6" from floor

(32) 1 piece thick blue glass with Near central portion 6" from floor P or B scratched on outer

(33) 1 piece thick blue glass Near central portion 6" from

floor

(34) 1 neck of blue glass bottle like #12 Near central portion 6" from

floor

Eastern Cellar

10/26/26 All material found near center of days excavations near bottom

No ash, lime, charcoal layer

(35)1 piece red glazed pottery

(36)17 pieces red glazed pottery

(37)3 pieces red glazed pottery

(38)6 pieces thick blue glass

(39)1 piece flint

(40)1 piece greenish glaze with yellow wavy line on one side like 14

(41)2 pieces light blue background striped with one dark blue line

(42)1 piece white background blue stripes and blotches on one side, plain white on other

(43)6 pieces whit glazed-from cup

(44)3 pieces clear glass

(45)1 iron knife blade

(46)5 pieces of iron very corroded

(47)1 very strange piece of iron, riding spur

(48)3 pieces brown pottery with buff color design, with writing

2 smaller pieces with buff glaze on one side

3 clay pipe bowls almost whole

Many pieces clay pipe stem

Many wrought iron nails

(49)1 spoon bowl marked with 3 spoons

(50)1 spoon bowl 1670 over II B all on a round shield

(51)1 circular object- weight?

(52)1/2 of stone pestle broken in two lengthwise

(53)1 needle like piece of iron

(54)1 piece blue glass

Very many pieces thin window glass

(55)2 teeth and several bones

(56)2 pieces buff glaze-both sides

10/27/26

Mixture of broken brick and lime cement found opposite middle of west wall about 6" in thickness and almost 6" above yellow sand, extended into room for 3'.

Material on this day found close to floor near west wall

(57)1 apostle spoon

(58)1 apostle spoon

(59)1 rattail spoon

(60)1 large pestle

(61)1 iron buckle

Many pieces broken pipe stem

Many pieces broken pipe bowl

(62)1 handle of earthenware jug

(63)1 piece earthenware jug

(64)3 pieces lavender colored cup

(65)3 pieces blue glass

(66)5 pieces plate thick, blue, yellow, gray background

(67)1 button, metal p055. covered with cloth

(68)1 piece frosted glass, sugar bowl cover?

(69)1 Gray china deep blue bands, same as before Much broken window glass

(70)4 pieces iron

(71)5 pieces red clay vessel, brown glaze inside

5 pieces clay pipe stem

2 complete clay pipe bowls

A few fragments of slate

(72)1 piece metal looks like shutter latch

(73)3 pieces clear glass bottle

(74)1 lower part of large tooth

(75)1 piece flint

10/28/26

Western Cellar

(76)2 pieces iron, hoe? SW corner floor

(77)1 bowl of spoon

Front entrance

Many nails

(78)2 pieces gray pottery with blue design

(79)1 large oyster shell

(80)1 large heavy blue glass

(81)1 iron ring-poss. for keeping buttons on coats

(82)1 spoon handle

More broken pipe stem

(83)1 neck of a Dutch squat bottle In test pit 10' N of middle of N wall

of West cellar, almost 10"

deep

(84)3 pieces thin glass

(85)1 piece thin iron, knife blade?

10/29/26

Test pits

1)Bone, shell, brick, pottery On Booth's land 40' west of SW

corner of western cellar

2)Bone, shell, brick 20' SW of SW corner

3)Bone, shell, brick, clay pipe stem, 20' SE of SE corner

large tooth

(86)long log Almost 5-7' inside front door lying

parallel to S wall of building

1' inside front wall of entrance

(87)1 door key 1 inside front wall of entrance

(88)1 table knife with bone handle

(89)1 rosette near key and knife

(90)1 axe blade Near west hearth

More bits of glass

(91)4 pieces thin iron, like 70, 76?

(92)1 piece brownish slipware like #48

(93)1 piece of grayish pottery, piece of bottom of jug or butter bowl,

many fine lines on outside

(94)2 pieces brown glazed pottery

(95)1 piece gray slipware blue band

(96)1 piece brown glazed with yellow wavy lines, brown glaze both sides

10/30/26

(97) Hard brick, burned and glazed

(98) Hard brick, burned and glazed

(99) Mixed hard and soft brick

(100) Hard brick, burned and glazed

(101) Soft brick

(102) Soft brick

(103) Lime cement and plaster

(104) Slate

(105) Bone and slate

(106) 1 large piece of slaty stone and one piece of stone shaped like a plow point

11/4/26

All material found in NE corner of sill

(107) 1 stirrup

(108) 1 spoon bowl

(109) 1 large piece flint

(110) 3 pieces blue gray slipware

(111) 2 Red clay pottery with brown glaze

(112) 1 Gray slipware, no blue, bottom part of a side

(113) 2 small flat slaty pebbles - broken chips

(114) 4 small pieces white china-cup?

(115) 1 yellow glaze one side red paint reverse

(116) 3 pieces red glaze

(117) 6 pieces dark brown glass

(118) 5 pieces thick glass, blue

(119) 1 piece thick glass blue, part of neck

(120) 1 piece thin copper

(121) 1 piece stone with partially drilled hole

(122) 1 piece jug handle

(123) 1 piece brown glaze, one side

(124) 1 piece iron hook

(125) 1 heavy iron object

(126) 1 piece broken pestle

(127) 1 periwinkle

(128) 2 quahog From bottom of west cellar

(129) 1 oyster From bottom of west cellar

(130) 1 boars tusk From bottom of west cellar

(131) 1 piece widely flaring bowl- bottom and lower part of side green

-yellow glaze inside and outside- except no glaze on underside of bottom

(132) 1 piece slipware- brown glaze with yellow wavy lines outside yellow glaze inside

(133) 1 piece slipware- brown glaze with yellow wavy lines outside, brown glaze inside

(134) 1 piece mud color glaze inside and outside

(135) 1 piece red(?) glaze inside and outside

(136) 22 pieces red clay pottery- red glaze both sides- thick rounded rim

(137) Stone counter

(138) Stone counter

(139) Stone counter

(140) 1 piece round iron rod Found near West fireplace

hammered square and pointing for

almost an inch at one end- 8 1/2" long 3/8" diameter.

(141) 3 pieces wood knots-fragments In general debris

(142) Bits of broken iron and Found on West fireplace hearth several nails

(143) 8 pieces mortar- well trowel led Found off oven

(144) Charcoal Found within fireplace

(145) Wood same as other log

11/12/26

(146) 1 spoon bowl with mark Found outside front door

11/14/26

(147) 5 pieces shell mortar Found in west cellar

11/15/26

(148) 2 pieces broken pottery red glaze West of front door

both sides

(149) 1 knife blade similar #45 West of front door

(150) 2 pieces flint West of front door

(151) 3 pieces gray/blue slipware West of front door

(152) 1 piece gray/blue slipware Near North wall

5 bits of plain window glass

2 bits window glass with coating like #9

(153) 2 pieces slate Near entrance at right and left

Nails

Clay pipe stems

Spoon with unreadable mark

(154) Metal candle stick East of east fireplace

11/16/26

(155) 1 spoon bowl Central portion

(156) 1 piece flint Central portion

(157) 1 piece flint Central portion

(158) 12 pieces brown glazed pottery Central portion

(159) 1 piece heavy iron, possible East side of entrance just outside

strap hinge

(160) 2 stone counters Central portion

(161) 1 piece thin copper Central portion

(162) 1 piece iron Central portion

(163) 2 pieces pottery muddy color glaze Central portion

(164) 4 pieces blue glass with medium Central portion

thick "unknown coating"

(165) 1 piece blue glass with Central Portion

same patination, thick shape indicates part of bottle neck

(166) 1 piece green-yellow glaze- Central portion

yellow dot on one side plain yellow on reverse

(167) 1 piece green-yellow Central portion

glaze- yellow wavy line on one side green yellow on reverse

(168) 2 pieces red glazed pottery Central portion

(169) 1 piece bone Central portion

(170) Steel needle: 4 3/4" long Central portion

3/32" diameter like #53

(171) Deer tooth Central portion

(172) 1 piece wood fragment Central portion

(173) partly formed broken stone axe Central portion

Box 10 glazed bricks

Box 11 glazed brick and red brick

In sieve miscellaneous brick, bone slate

6 large pieces slaty rock

1 whole brick Found 2' SW of SW corner of foundation buried 2' below surface

(174) Front tooth of a deer

(175) Tip end of a pair of Hames ?

8/8/29 All material from north side near door

(176) Stone implement resembles skinning knife

(177) Spoon bowl, price: 1670

(178) Clay pipe bowl marked RT/TIPP/LI

(179) Clay pipe stem with WL EVANS above wavy line

(180) Circular piece of iron 1/4" in diameter with a hole 1/2"

(181) A spindle shaft or punch for cutting holes in leather, large hole in one end leading to 2 smaller holes opening at side

(182) Blue gray slipware like #10 and #31

(183) 2 pieces blue glass bottle like #12 and #34

(184) 1 piece red pottery with brown glaze on either side, resembling part of mouth of jug

(185) 8 large pieces of bowl 66 with blue and yellow design. 12 small pieces of same

(186) 1 piece lavender cup or plate like #64

(187) 1 piece of pottery with a trace of yellow glaze on one side

(188) 1 piece of pottery with brownish red glaze on both sides

(189) 2 pieces pottery bowl with greenish yellow glaze on both sides

Found when leveling for foundation

(190) 1 link from pair of hames

(191) 1 modern clay pipe bowl

(192) 3 pieces of slate with scratches

(193) 1 stone with start of drill hole on both sides 5 pieces window glass

(194) 1 piece blue bottle glass, 1/2 of top

(195) 1 pebble, almost as large as walnut, with same salt glaze as on faces of many bricks

(196) 1 large fragment red glazed pottery

(197) 1 piece pottery with blue and black glaze both sides

(198) 1 piece lead from a diamond pane window

2 hand wrought nails

Plaster samples

(199) 2 pieces plaster showing ogee molding along one edge

(200 - 209) pieces of plaster showing reed and grass filling, spacing between lathes, kind of lathes

(210 - 212) pieces of plaster showing application directly to oak clapboards

(213) Pieces of plaster showing thickness of oak lathe

(214) Piece of plaster showing scar of up down saw on vertically placed board, reed and press filling between the board and the next to the left and that two horizontally placed lathes were nailed to these

Appendix 1

Artifact Distributions: All Material Classes

 

West Cellar

East Cellar

Central Portion

Totals

Axe

0

0

1

1

Bones

12+

6+

4

22+

Bottle Glass

13

16+

22

51+

Brick

18+

1+

8+

27+

Buckle

0

1

0

1

Button

0

1

0

1

Candlestick

0

1

0

1

Ceramic

11

57

92

160

Copper frags

0

0

2

2

Curb Bit

0

1

0

1

Drilled Stone

0

0

2?

2?

Flint

0

2

5

7

Hoe

1

0

0

1

Hook

0

0

1

1

Horseshoe

0

1

0

1

Key

0

0

1

1

Knife

0

1

3

4

Lead

0

0

1

1

Metal

0

11

16+

27+

Mortar

2+

?

14+

16+

Nails

4

Many

6+

11+

Pestles

1

2

1

4

Pipe Stems

9

10+

6+

25+

Pipe Bowls

3

6

2

11

Rosette

0

0

1

1

Shell

5+

0

5

10+

Slate

11+

Few

8

20+

Spoons

4

5

6

15

Spur

0

1

0

1

Stirrup

0

0

1

1

Stone Tools

1

0

2

3

Stone Weight

0

1

3

4

Window Glass

17+

Many

17+

35+

wood

2

?

6

8

TOTALS

114+

127+

236

477+

 

Appendix 2

Ceramics recovered from Cellar Holes and House- 1926

Form

Redware

Tin-glazed

Slipware

Mottled

Stoneware

 

Tall pan

6

       

6

Milk Pan

3

       

3

Mug

6

   

2

2

10

Cup

   

2

   

2

Chamber Pot

2

       

2

Jar

8

       

8

Plate

2

2

     

4

Punch Bowl

 

2

     

2

Basin

 

1

     

1

Med. pot

 

1

     

1

Jug

     

1

 

1

Unknown

   

1

 

1

2

TOTAL

27

6

3

3

3

43

Appendix 2

Ceramic Analysis conducted 1994

Vessel 1:

This vessel is represented b sherd numbers (3) 158, (4) 136 (1) 116, (1) 123, and 2 unnumbered. The shape of this vessel is a tall pan with an interior medium tan glaze with brown speckling. The vessel diameter at the rim is 8 1/2" and the thickness of the rim is 3/8" while the body thickness is 3/16".

Vessel 2:

This vessel is represented b sherd number 96. The shape of this vessel is probably a chamber pot although this is only an educated guess based on the curvature and the fact that it is glazed on the interior and exterior. The glaze color is cinnamon brown. The body thickness is 3/16".

Vessel 3:

This vessel is represented b sherd number 20. The shape of this vessel is a possible chamber pot with an interior and exterior clear glaze and a brushed slip design on the exterior.

Vessel 4:

This vessel is represented b sherd numbers (2) 148, 196, 136 and 4 unnumbered ones. The vessel shape is probably a tall pan. It is glazed on the interior and exterior with a mottled clear and brown glaze. The basal diameter is 7 1/2" and its thickness is 15/16" and the body thickness is 5/8".

Vessel 5:

This vessel is represented b sherd numbers (2) 36, (2) 94, 111, and 2 unnumbered. The shape of this vessel is possibly a mug that is glazed on the interior and the exterior with a clear glaze. Piece number 111 has possible thermal deformation reminiscent of a ceramic production waster sherd.

Vessel 6:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 37. The shape of the vessel is a possible milk pan with a dark honey interior glaze. The vessel diameter at the rim is 11 1/2" and the rim is 5/8" thick. This vessel is similar to one found at Pemaquid, Maine (Bradley 1994:134).

Vessel 7:

This vessel is represented b sherd numbers (2) 158, (3) 13, (3) 36, (2) 136, 21, and 5 unnumbered. The shape of the vessel is a tall pan with a light honey interior glaze. The vessel diameter at the rim is 8 1/2" and 7 1/2" at the base. The rim and the base are both 3/8" thick and the body is 1/8" thick. The overall height was over 6".

Vessel 8:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (3) 71, 158, 136, 111, and 36. The shape appears to be a pot with a dark hone interior glaze. The basal diameter is 6 1/2" and the base is 4/8" thick while the body is 2/8" thick. The basal shape is similar to one found at Pemaquid, Maine which was dated to the early eighteenth century (Bradley 1994:130).

 

Vessel 9:

This vessel is represented b sherd number 158. The shape is unknown but is dark olive interior glazed. The vessel diameter is 5 1/2" in the middle, which may mean it, is a pot. The rim thickness is 5/16". The exterior rim present is very similar to one found at Pemaquid, Maine which was dated to the eighteenth century (Bradley 1994:132).

Vessel 10:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 71 and 3 unnumbered. The shape is unknown but the interior surface is glazed in a dark cinnamon glaze. The vessel rim diameter is 7 1/2" and the vessel ma have been a pot. The exterior rim present is very similar to one found at Pemaquid, Maine which was dated to the eighteenth century (Bradley 1994:132).

Vessel 11:

This vessel is represented b sherd numbers 184 and 4 unnumbered. The shape is unknown but it is glazed on the interior and the exterior with a dark brown glaze. This vessel may have been a plate. The rim is 1/8" thick and the body is 2/8" thick. This piece has the appearance similar to ceramic production kiln wasters.

Vessel 12:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (4) 136, (2) 36, (2) 37, 158, 168, and 4 unnumbered. The shape is a milk pan with a dark honey glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 11 1/2" and the basal diameter is 6 1/2", The rim is 7/16" thick and the base is 4/16" thick.

Vessel 13:This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 36 and 168. The shape is unknown but the vessel has a chocolate brown matt finish glaze to the interior and exterior. The body is 2/8" thick. This vessel ma be a milk pan based on the fact that there is an interior lip on the vessel and this seems to occur with a greater frequency on milk pans than tall pans.

 

Vessel 14:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (2) 136, 36, 116, and 2 unnumbered. The shape is a pot with a dark brown matt finish glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 7". The rim is 4/8" thick and the body is 3/16" thick. This crock probably held less than 12 liters of liquid when it was in use. A vessel with a similar glaze and shape has been identified from Fort Pentagoet from a context labeled Pentagoet I ( 1635-1654). Faulkner states that this ware is very similar to those produced in Charlestown, Massachusetts and attributed to Philip Drinker and his son Edward who were producing their wares from 1635 to 1700. (Faulkner 1987:206). This vessel form was also reported by Baker from the Clarke and Lake Company Site in Maine (1654-1676) (Baker 1985: 28). The fragment from Aptucxet has a concretion of what appears to be dripped and pooled glaze and clay at the lip. This concretion ma be the result of poor firing of the piece when it was produced. There also appears to be evidence of the piece being forced away from the tile which would have been below it during firing with a large piece of the glaze being pulled away.

Vessel 15:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (2) 36 and 158. The shape is a tall pan or storage jar with a dark hone glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 7". The rim is 2/8" thick.

Vessel 16:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is a tall pan with a cinnamon glaze on the interior. The rim and the base are 2/8" thick.

 

Vessel 17:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 35 and 158. The shape is a small pot with a brown glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 4 1/2". The rim and base are both 2/16" thick.

Vessel 18:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 136. The shape is a possibly pot with a clear glaze on the interior. The rim is 4/8" thick and the body is 3/16" thick. This fragment resembles a ceramic production kiln waster fragment. A redware pot with a similar rim was found at Pemaquid, Maine (Bradley 1994:134).

Vessel 19:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 131. The shape is a pot with a dark olive glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 6 1/2". The rim is 7/16" thick.

Vessel 20:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (2) 136. The shape is a tall pan with a clear glaze on the interior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 10 1/2". The body is 3/16" thick.

Vessel 21:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is a mug with an exterior that is glazed in mottled clear and dark brown, the interior is glazed light green. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 3 1/2".

Vessel 22:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is a plate with a light olive glaze on the interior and a trailed slip design containing green flecks of copper. This green speckling was noted as a common decorative decoration b New England potters and Watkins noted that James Kettle of Salem was using it during his production period of 1687 to 1709/10 (Watkins 1950:15)

Vessel 23:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is probably a mug with a light tan glaze on the interior.

Vessel 24:

This vessel is represented by two sherds with no numbers. The shape is probably a mug and is glazed on the exterior with a clear glaze and dark brown mottling and on the interior with a yellow glaze. This piece is possibly English mottled ware from the early eighteenth century.

Vessel 25:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 36. The shape is a possible pot with a clear interior glaze. The body is 5/16" thick.

Vessel 26:

This vessel is represented by two sherds with no numbers. The shape is a possible mug with a dark brown glaze on the exterior.

Vessel 27:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 188. The shape is a possible mug with an interior and exterior clear glaze. The body is 3/16" thick.

Vessel 28:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is a mug with molded bands on the exterior. The body is 2/8" thick.

TIN-GLAZED

Vessel 29:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 42 and 66. The shape is a plate with a blue and white painted design on the interior.

Vessel 30:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 41 and 197. The shape is a bowl with a turquoise colored glaze and black design on the interior and exterior. Sherds of a vessel with a similar shape and color were found at the Joseph Howland site at Rock Nook that dates from 1675 to 1725-30. The vessel is possibly Spanish or Mediterranean.

Vessel 31:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (3) 64 and 186. The shape is a bowl with a light purple interior and exterior glaze. A similar colored vessel was found at the Major John Bradford site in Kingston that dates from 1675 to 1725.

Vessel 32:

This vessel is represented by sherd number 43. The shape is a medicine pot dating between 1690 and 1780 by Hume (1969:205 figure 67 number 4 or 5).

Vessel 33:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is a plate with a light blue line on the rim and a blue smudge design.

Vessel 34:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers (3) 66, 185 and 18 with no visible numbers. The shape is a basin with a blue dash design on the rim and a debased large floral design on the interior. The height is 3 3/4" and the diameter is 10" at the rim and 5" at the base. Heritage Plantation (1994:63) dates this vessel from 1660 to 1690. The general stylistic traits of the central floral design and the blue dashes along the rim appear to be reminiscent of the famous blue dash chargers produced in England and Holland. This form and the decoration appear to be a debased version of this earlier finer forms. The flowers or fruit are abstract and the form itself, a bowl, does not appear to have been a common form during the earlier portion of the production of the blue dash chargers. Due to the debased nature of the design, a late seventeenth century date is quite possible.

SLIPWARE

Vessel 35:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. It is simply yellow glazed with no features other than its lack of any. It may be a piece of yellow lead glazed slipware dating from 1670 to 1795.

Vessel 36:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 56, 62, and 3 unnumbered. The shape is a cup or mug with a brown combed and dotted pattern on the exterior and a handle. The height was approximately over 2 1/2". The pieces are glazed on both the interior and exterior and represent fragments of dotware that was a popular ceramic in the Midlands of England from 1685 to 1720 and was probably produced at Staffordshire, England (Heritage Plantation 1994: 50).

Vessel 37:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 115, 187, 56, and 1 unnumbered. The shape is a possible cup or mug. The material appears to be slipware with a combed design present. This would date the piece to 1670-1795 (Hume 1969:134).

STONEWARE

Vessel 38:

This vessel is represented b sherd number (2) 151, (2) 110, 112, 10, and 12 unnumbered. The shape is a gray stoneware mug with a incised blue floral design on the body. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 4". The rim is 3/16" thick. One sherd bears a fragment of the coat of arms of Queen Anne, which would date the piece to between 1702 to 1714 (Heritage Plantation 1994:70). Hume also states that same date range (1969: 282).

Vessel 39:

This vessel is represented b sherd number 69, 78, and 1 unnumbered. The shape is a gray stoneware mug with a blue banded design and a molded royal coat of arms. The coat of arms may be of George the first. The clues to this supposition that this coat of arms is from his reign is that there is a circular cartouche with a raised dot pattern around it. This is surmounted with a stylized and simple crown design. These design elements seem to be very similar to those found on Westerwald mugs from Pemaquid, Maine with the George the first cipher. The date for George the first's reign was 1714 to 1720.

Vessel 40:

This vessel is represented by one sherd with no number. The shape is unknown but the vessel has a brown Albany slip on the interior. If this is really an Albany slip, then this piece may date to a later disturbance on the site dating to the late eighteenth century or later.

MOTTLED WARE

Vessel 41:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 93 and 2 unnumbered. The shape is an English buff bodied earthenware mug with a scratched floral design on the exterior surface. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 2". The decoration is mottled ware. The design has been scratched into the body and is somewhat reminiscent of the scraffitto wares of the North Devon region of England. The technique is also similar to that used to decorate the Westerwald mugs from the site. The body shape is similar to one found at Pemaquid, Maine (Bradley 1994:147). This vessel probably dates to the early eighteenth century.

Vessel 42:

This vessel is represented by sherd numbers 131 and 3 unnumbered. The shape is a pitcher or jug with an olive glaze on the interior and exterior with a trailed slip design on the exterior. The vessel has a diameter at the rim of 4 1/2". The rim is 1/8" thick. It appears to be mottled ware, possibly similar to the Staffordshire brown-mottled earthenware found at Pemaquid, Maine (Bradley 1994:147). The date for this material is the early eighteenth century.

Appendix 3

Part

Cattle

Pig

Sheep

Deer

Horse

Gull

Goose

Cranial

 

2 Frags

         

Maxillary

 

4

   

1

   

Mandibular

 

3

   

1

   

Vertebrae

             

Rib

1

2?

2 ?

       

Scapula Right

1

 

1

       

Humerus Right

         

1

1

Humerus Left

   

1

       

Ulna Right

1

           

Ulna Left

             

Radius Right

             

Radius Left

             

Metacarpal Right

   

1

       

Metacarpal

             

Carpal

2 lt

           

Phalange

             

Pelvis

             

Femur Right

             

Femur Left

             

Tibia Right

 

1

       

Tibia Left

1

           

Tibia Indet.

1

           

Metatarsal

             

Patella

             

Astragelous

1

           

Metapoidal

1?

   

1

     

Other Indet.

4

           

Carpometacarpus

         

1 Rt

 

Shell:

2 Oyster shells

2 Soft shell clam shells

1 Moonsnail

The Herb Garden Material:

Part

Cattle

Pig

Sheep

Deer

Horse

Cranial

 

1

     

Maxillary

       

4 tth

Mandibular

       

2

Vertebrae

   

7

   

Rib

   

5

   

Scapula Right

     

2

 

Humerus Right

1

1

1

   

Humerus Left

 

1

     

Ulna Right

   

1

   

Ulna Left

   

1

   

Radius Right

   

1

1

 

Radius Left

   

1

   

Metacarpal Right

         

Metacarpal Left

   

2

   

Carpal

9

       

Phalange

10

 

1

   

Pelvis

   

2 Frags

   

Femur Right

     

1

 

Femur Left

   

1

   

Tibia Right

   

1

   

Tibia Left

         

Tibia Indet.

         

Metatarsal Right

2

 

1

   

Metatarsal Left

   

1

   

Patella

2

       

Astragelous

         

Metapoidal

     

1

 

Other Indet.

         

Carpometacarpus

         

Calcaneum

 

1

     

Shell:1 Oyster shell