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III. COLLECTION ANALYSIS: CRAM COLLECTION

A.        Reduction Debitage

A total of 556 pieces of lithic reduction debitage (cores, shatter and flakes) are present in the Cram Collection.  The abundance of debitage makes the Cram collection unlike many other contemporary avocational archaeologist's collections.  Cram appears to have known the importance of collecting the less exciting debitage as well as the usual projectile points and stone tools. A variety of materials were represented by debitage (Table 3). The majority of the debitage

 

Table 3. Reduction debitage from the Cram Collection

 

Material

 

Count

 

Percentage

 

Rhyolite

 

225

 

40.5%

 

Quartz

 

308

 

55.4%

 

Quartzite

 

9

 

1.6%

 

Saugus Jasper

 

3

 

.5%

 

Pennsylvania Jasper

 

1

 

.2%

 

Slate

 

3

 

.5%

 

Granite

 

1

 

.2%

 

Sandstone

 

1

 

.2%

 

Siltstone

 

1

 

.2%

 

Attleboro Red Felsite

 

1

 

.2%

 

Volcanic

 

1

 

.2%

 

Chalcedony

 

2

 

.4%

 

Total

 

556

 

100%

 

originated from the reduction of quartz cobbles with rhyolite being also used to a slightly lesser degree. Ten other raw materials were present, but none of them occurred anywhere near the overwhelming predominance of the quartz and rhyolite.

 

Table 4 divides the reduction debitage down into chipping debris, shatter and cores. Chipping debris are the formal flakes that are struck off of cores and tools as the reduction sequence progresses.  Shatter are the informal, sharp edged, more chunky pieces of lithic debris resulting from the breakage of a core or raw material.  Cores are the raw material source that flakes are struck off and shatter originates from.

 

Table 4. Reduction debitage separated by debitage type

 

Material

 

Flake

 

Shatter

 

Core

 

Rhyolite

 

212

 

7

 

6

 

Quartz

 

271

 

34

 

3

 

Quartzite

 

8

 

0

 

1

 

Saugus Jasper

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Pennsylvania Jasper

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Slate

 

2

 

 

 

1

 

Granite

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Sandstone

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Siltstone

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Attleboro Red Felsite

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Volcanic

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Chalcedony

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Total

 

503

 

41

 

12

 

Several pieces of quartz, quartzite, rhyolite and one piece each of slate and chalcedony, bore cortex on their surfaces.  The presence of cortex is indicative of the raw material having originated as glacial cobbles as opposed to quarried raw material. Table 5 summarizes the cortex bearing debitage present in the Cram Collection.

 

Table 5. Cortex bearing debitage present in the Cram Collection.

 

Material

 

Flake

 

Shatter

 

Core

 

Rhyolite

 

8

 

6

 

0

 

Quartz

 

1

 

8

 

1

 

Quartzite

 

2

 

0

 

1

 

Slate

 

0

 

0

 

1

 

Total

 

11

 

14

 

3

 

B.        Bifaces

A total of 146 bifaces and biface fragments are present in the Cram Collection.  The following types of bifaces were identified:

 

Blocky             11

Round                          2

Square/ Rectangular    35

Stemmed                       5

Triangular                    25

Oval                            28

Lenticular                    19

Biface Fragments        14

Teardrop/ Diamond       4

T-Shaped                       2

Curved                          1

 

Some of these bifaces may represent preforms of projectile points or may be finished tools themselves.  The catch-all category of biface encompassed both types of artifacts. As can be seen in Table 6, the majority of the bifaces were made of either quartz or rhyolite. Quartzite was the next most common raw material, followed by chert.

 

Table 6. Biface raw  materials

 

Bifaces

 

Count

 

Percentage

 

Rhyolite

 

87

 

59.2%

 

Quartz

 

33

 

22.4%

 

Quartzite

 

9

 

6.3%

 

Chert

 

4

 

2.8%

 

Slate

 

3

 

2.1%

 

Granite

 

3

 

2.1%

 

Hornfels

 

2

 

1.4%

 

Pennsylvania Jasper

 

1

 

.7%

 

Argillite

 

1

 

.7%

 

Attleboro Red Felsite

 

1

 

.7%

 

Volcanic

 

1

 

.7%

 

Sandstone

 

1

 

.7%

 

Totals

 

146

 

100%

 

C.        Drills

Five bifacially worked drills are present in the Cram Collection. A tool is identified as a drill if it has roughly parallel sides and a steeply angled point. Drills were used to work wood, bone and steatite. Two of the drills present are made of argillite and the remaining three are made of rhyolite, chert and quartz. The quartz drill is T-shaped and the chert one is 8.8 cm long and parallel-sided.

 

D.        Unifaces

Along with the 146 biface and biface fragments, 23 unifacial tools were recovered.  Unifaces are tools with only one face or side that was worked, whereas a biface as two sides that are worked.  Unifaces may have been used for specific purposes or as quickly produced tools which were used and discarded soon thereafter. The majority of the unifaces were made of quartz, a raw material that lends itself to easy breakage and rapid creation of unifacial tools.  One rhyolite uniface is also present in the collection.

 

E.        Projectile Points

A total of 203 complete or mostly complete projectile points are present in the Cram Collection. The majority of these points (n=82) dated to the Late to Transitional Archaic Periods Table 7.

 

Table 7. Projectile points in Cram Collection                                                

PALEO-INDIAN     13,000-10,000 BP                0

EARLY ARCHAIC 10000-8000 BP                      0

MIDDLE ARCHAIC 8000-6000 BP                      19

Neville 8000-7000 BP                                             5

Neville variant                                                          1

Stark 7500-6500 BP                                                            13

LATE ARCHAIC 6000-3500 BP                           62

Otter Creek 6000-4500 BP                                     1

Brewerton Corner Notched 5500-4500 BP                     12       

Small Stemmed 6000-4000 BP                            17

Squibnocket Triangle 5000-3500 BP                               21

Genessee 5000-3500 BP                                       2                                 

Atlantic 4100-3600 BP                                            8

TRANSITIONAL ARCHAIC 3500-2700 BP       20

Susquahannah Broad 4000-3000 BP                             6                     

Orient Fishtail 3000-2000 BP                                13

Meadowood 3000-2500 BP                                               1

EARLY WOODLAND 2500-2000 BP                  8

Rossville 2500-1500 BP                                         3

Adena 2800-1200 BP                                                         5                                 

MIDDLE WOODLAND 2000-1200 BP                 26

Greene 1800-1200 BP                                            14

Fox Creek Stemmed 1800-1300 BP                                6

Jack's Reef Pentagonal 1600-1100 BP               6

LATE WOODLAND 1200-400 BP                                    68

Levanna 1300-400 BP                                            68

 

The temporal distribution of the points indicates occupation of the sites excavated by Cram beginning in the Middle Archaic, peaking in the Late to Transitional Archaic, falling off in the Early Woodland and rebounding in the Middle Woodland before peaking again in the Late Woodland.

 

The raw materials used for the manufacture of the projectile points paralleled the materials used for the reduction debris and bifaces (Table 8). Rhyolite was used the primary raw material used

Table 8. Raw materials of projectile points from the Cram Collection

 

Material

 

MA

 

LA

 

TA

 

EW

 

MW

 

LW

 

Total

 

Quartz

 

 

 

34

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32

 

64/ 31.5%

 

Rhyolite

 

16

 

14

 

19

 

5

 

18

 

28

 

100/ 49.3%

 

Quartzite

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

3

 

4

 

3

 

11/ 5.4%

 

Argillite

 

2

 

4

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7/ 3.4%

 

Hornfels

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

5

 

9/ 4.4%

 

S. Jasper

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/ .5%

 

P. Jasper

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

1/ .5%

 

Slate

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/ .5%

 

Sandstone

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1/ .5%

 

Chert

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6/ 3%

 

 

 

19

 

62

 

20

 

8

 

26

 

68

 

203

 

 

in all periods. Quartz saw its primary use during the Late Archaic and Late Woodland Periods.  Quartzite was used from the Late Archaic through the Woodland Period. Argillite appears to have been used primarily during the Archaic, while hornfels was used mainly in the Middle to Late Woodland and to a lesser degree, during the Late Archaic. Saugus Jasper, slate, sandstone and chert were all used only during the Middle or Late Archaic while Pennsylvania Jasper was used in the Middle Woodland.

 

The occurrence of exotic or traded materials, hornfels, the jaspers, and chert, in the Late Archaic, Middle and Late Woodland periods indicates a general pattern of extra regional trade or interaction.  In Middle Archaic, populations appear to have maintained fairly localized spheres of interaction, at least in terms of lithic raw materials.  Populations may have been trading for perishable stuffs, skins, plant materials, wooden objects, that do not survive archaeologically, but based on the lithic artifacts, they appear to have been more localized in their travel and contact. During the Late and Terminal Archaic, interaction with populations to the west appears to have increased, subsequently falling off in the Early Woodland.  Trade then increased in the Middle Woodland with the focus being towards the Boston Basin and Pennsylvania, or at least in association with trade routes that included these areas to the exclusion of New York State. The Late Woodland saw only trade with the Boston Basin being represented, possibly due to the rise of the Iroquois and the Mohawk, which may have its origin during the Middle Woodland Period.

 

Additionally, one projectile point tip made of Pennsylvania Jasper is present, likely dating to the Middle Woodland.

 

F.         Other Stone Tools

Other stone tools aside from the chipped stone artifacts are present in the Cram Collection.  The presence of a wide variety of tools, likely from Smelt Pond sites, indicates that a wide variety of activities took place at the sites that Cram excavated.  This points towards these being larger sites that were occupied for a significant part of the year. The tools present include one piece of worked graphite which was likely used for body decoration as well as 13  hammerstones of various materials (slate, granite, rhyolite, and quartzite) and one anvil used to reduce and process  lithic raw materials. Other tools included one possible schist hoe, nine abraders used for sharpening stone tools, one grey slate pendent, six full-grooved axe heads, three adzes, five plummets and net sinkers, and two granite pestles. The variety of tools indicate that lithic raw material was being reduced, plant materials were being grown and processed, ground stone tools were being made or sharpened, wood was being worked and fish nets and lines were being used.

 

Three other possible stone tool artifacts are present including two fragments of possibly worked granite and one possibly worked piece of schist.

 

G.        Steatite

Forty-one fragments of Transitional Archaic steatite (soapstone) bowls are present in the collection. Steatite is a considered a potential sign of a more sedentary existence by Native people during the Transitional Archaic. The presence of so many steatite fragments likely indicates that the sites excavated by Cram were locations of larger communities that saw occupation for an extended period of time.  Steatite is a material that would have had to have been imported or traded from central Massachusetts or Rhode Island. It is often found in burial contexts and is considered a luxury good that may have had religious or ceremonial associations.

 

The steatite vessels from the collection had rim diameters of 6 cm, 10.5 cm, 13 cm, 14 cm, 20 cm, 22 cm, 28 cm, and 30 cm.  It appears that there are several vessels represented in the collection.  Body thicknesses ranged from .6 to 3.2 cm.  Body thickness differs in different sections of the body and can vary widely in one vessel. Several fragments of steatite were very porous with numerous pits in them that were the result of softer minerals leaching out. Lug handles were present on three fragments. Four fragments bore drill holes that were the result of attempts to repair a cracked or broken vessel.  The presence of repair holes indicates that these vessels were curated and likely used for an extended period of time before finally being too broken to be used further.

 

H.        Pottery

Ninety-eight fragments of Native pottery are present in the collection, the majority of which (n=69/ 70.4%) are tempered with fragments of shell. The remainder are tempered with crushed rock. Shell-tempered pottery was used more in the Middle to Late Woodland Periods, while Grit/ gravel tempered pottery was first made in the Terminal Archaic, and continued to be produced into the Late Woodland.

 

The shell-tempered pottery fragments consisted mainly of body fragments but 25 rim fragments were also present.  The rim shapes present included squared, rounded, and squared and everted. Squared rims are commonly found on vessels dating to the Middle Woodland Period. Several fragments were also decorated.  Decorative techniques included the use of diagonal lines across the top of a squared rim, a squared rim with diagonal lines and an incised line on the exterior, dentate stamping on the exterior of the vessel near the squared rim which had diagonal lines on top of it, scalloped shell marks decorating the upper half of the exterior, and a punctate design running vertically on the exterior. Two of the fragments were large enough to estimate the size of the vessels that the fragments came from.  One had an exterior rim diameter of 18 cm while the other had an exterior rim diameter of 28 cm. Many of the vessels bore evidence on their exteriors of the cord wrapped paddle that was used to help shape and firm up the clay, while the interiors of the fragments were wiped smooth. All of the decorative elements described above were predominantly in use during the Middle Woodland Period.

 

The grit-tempered pottery fragments also had cord-wrapped paddle marks on the exterior. Two were decorated with a dentate pattern, just like the shell-tempered fragments. One fragments was found to have incised lines around the rim. Two fragments were large enough to measure the original vessel diameter.  In both cases it was found to be 22 cm on the exterior. Generally the decoration found on the grit-tempered fragments also points to a Middle Woodland origin for these sherds.

 

I.          Bone

A total 2885 fragments of bone are present in the Cram Collection. Eighteen species were identified including medium sized mammals, small mammals, birds, turtles and domestic mammals (Table 9). The majority of the fragments came deer with unidentified medium-sized

 

Table 9. Faunal remains from the Cram Collection

 

Species

 

Count

 

MNI

 

Medium Mammal

 

2741

 

11

 

            Longbone

 

347

 

 

 

            Longbone Burned

 

167

 

 

 

            Flatbone

 

318

 

 

 

            Flatbone Burned

 

4

 

 

 

Deer

 

1900

 

8

 

Bear

 

1

 

1

 

Seal

 

3

 

1

 

Canine

 

1

 

1

 

Small Mammal

 

39

 

9

 

Fox

 

1

 

1

 

Beaver

 

26

 

2

 

Racoon

 

26

 

3

 

Woodchuck

 

2

 

1

 

Rabbit

 

1

 

1

 

Muskrat

 

3

 

1

 

Bird

 

31

 

2

 

      Unidentified Bird

 

1

 

 

 

     Small Bird

 

2

 

 

 

     Medium Bird

 

6

 

 

 

     Large Bird

 

15

 

 

 

 Turkey

 

6

 

1

 

 Duck

 

1

 

1

 

Turtle

 

13

 

3

 

Painted Turtle

 

11

 

1

 

Box Turtle

 

1

 

1

 

Plymouth Red Belly Turtle

 

1

 

1

 

Domestic Mammals

 

7

 

3

 

      Cattle

 

4

 

1

 

      Sheep

 

2

 

1

 

      Swine

 

1

 

1

 

Total

 

2885

 

 

 

mammal fragments. The variety of species present indicates a that wide variety of resource areas were being utilized by the Native people living here. It is hypothesized that the subsistence system practiced by Late and Transitional Archaic to Early Woodland people was focal, intensive and specialized to a degree. Cleland has characterized this type of system as one that focuses on a limited number of resources to the exclusion of many others.  When a system such as this develops, preservation and storage technology to make this resource last for a substantial portion of the year also develops (Cleland 1976:62-63).  Specialized technology is also developed to maximize the amount of return and minimize the amount of energy that needs to be expended to procure it (Barber 1982: 96).  For example, the use of nets or weirs allows fishermen to catch a great number of fish by merely knowing when and where to put these devices.  This type of system seems appropriate for the period in question due to the first appearance of storage pits, pottery and the use of weirs at this time. This is the type of system used by the seventeenth century Wampanoag.

 

This type of system contrasts with a generalized subsistence pattern that utilizes a broad range of resources with no great effort being placed on maximizing the return through technology or storing it for the winter (Cleland 1976:62-63).  Diffuse or generalized systems are continually on the move to arrive at the next resource that is seasonally scheduled to be exploited.  Systems such as this have no true home bases and must acquire food as they can. This appears to be the type of system practiced by the Micmac in the historic period and possibly by the users of Small Stemmed technology in the Connecticut River Valley.

 

The seventeenth century Wampanoag were practicing what is well known to anthropologists as a mobile economy.  These people were seasonally migrational so they moved from place to place throughout the year to coordinate the resources of their territory.  To these people, the resources they are using are ill-distributed so, as a result, they had developed a specialized successful economy that maintained higher population numbers than could be done if those resources were gathered in isolation by specialized groups (Higgs and Vita-Finzi 1982:28). In Frederick Dunford's view, the Cape Cod Natives practiced a unique human adaptation to the environment which he termed "conditional sedentism" (Bragdon 1996:58).  This adaptation had the estuary as its primary focus with its human community "joining and splitting like quicksilver in a fluid pattern within its bounds." (Bragdon 1996:59).

 

A wide variety of plant and animal species could have been exploited by these people.  A list of the plant and animal based on the writing of Roger Williams indicates that 10 species of birds, 8 wild plant species, 4 cultivated plants, 8 wild mammal species, 16 fish species and 5 shellfish species were exploited by the Natives in southern New England.  This source gives a fairly complete inventory of the species. It does neglect many wild species that have been recovered archaeologically and some animal species that Williams did not note.  All in all though it shows that the natives had a diverse diet of wild resources which they collected. At least 14 (Alewife, herring, bass, scup, eel, lampreys, chestnuts, acorns, walnuts, strawberries, lobster, clams, oysters, quahog) of the species noted, are known to have been extensively collected and stored for the winter by the Contact Period.

 

The hunting and collecting of any of these species and the storage of certain ones was not a haphazard affair. People scheduled where and when they would return to various sites to make use of resources.  Winslow noted this as early as 1621 when he stated that "¼by reason whereof, our bay affording many lobsters, they resort every spring-tide thither; and now returned with us to Nemasket.´(Young 1974:96). This springtime movement to the coast to catch lobster was supported by Morton "¼savages will meet 500 to 1000 at a place where they come in with the tide to eat and have dried a store, abiding in the place for 4-6 weeks feasting and sporting together." (Morton 1972:90).  According to William Wood, the drying of shellfish and fish took place in the spring and summer "In summer these Indian women, when lobsters be in their plenty and prime, they dry them to keep for winter" (Wood 1977:114).           

 

After foods were dried out, many of the vegetable foodstuffs were placed in storage pits (Auqunnash), what the English termed "barnes".  The best description of this is by Thomas Morton in 1637 "They are careful to store food for winter, they eat freely of it but put away a convenient portion to get them through the dead of winter.  Their barnes are holes made in the earth, that will hold a hogshead of corn a peece in the.  In these (when their corn is out of the husk and well dried) they lay their store in great baskets (which they make of sparke) with matts under, about the sides and on top; and putting it into the place made for it, they cover it with earth.. to be used in the case of necessity and not else." (Morton 1972:42).  These are the type of storage pits which the colonists found in 1620 on Cape Cod wherein they found "a bottle of oil, bag of beans...2 to 3  baskets parched acorns" and several bushels of corn (Young 1974:141; 155).  During the Late Archaic storage pits make their first appearances in the archaeological record in New England, possibly marking a change in subsistence patterns by these people due to increased population pressure.

 

The faunal remains from the Cram Collection are a good example of the focal, intensive and somewhat specialized subsistence that was practiced by the Wampanoag in the seventeenth century. A wide range of small and medium mammals, birds and turtles were hunted, trapped and collected. The presence of turtles indicates that the site was likely occupied during the spring to fall, April to October, or from the fall into the winter.  The occupants would have had to collected the turtles before the turtles hibernated for the winter. Animals like deer, racoons, and beavers are in their prime in the winter.  This is when their fur coats are the fullest and they have a good layer of fat on their bodies. The deer remains may have come from one of the communal deer drives conducted in the fall.  Ethnohistorically it is reported that shellfish were often taken by women in the winter and Winslow stated that the best time for fowling was from October to March as the fishing tapered off (Young 1974:294). There were two ways in which birds were caught.  They were shot with arrows or they were netted.  Williams noted both of these techniques.  He stated that they would lay nets "¼on shore and catch many fowl upon the plains, and feeding under okes upon acorns as Geese, Turkeys, Cranes and others." (Williams 1971:172).  The presence of bird remains but no fish may be the result of the site having been occupied during the fall to winter as opposed to spring and summer.

 

 White-tail deer can reach a maximum length of  206 centimeters long and a maximum weight of  135 kilograms. They prefer farmlands and brushy wooded areas. Deer were the most common animal that was hunted by Native people in the northeast and as a result their bones are fairly ubiquitous at Native occupied sites. 

 

The deer provided the Natives with many raw materials for producing a vast array of their material culture.  The meat was eaten of course, the marrow was eaten and used for grease, the hide was tanned with the hair on or off for clothing, the antlers and bone were used as a raw material for tools such as arrow heads and fishhooks, the sinews were used for sewing, the hooves were used for glue and the bladders were used to contain oil. Seventeenth century sources are replete with references to deer.  This probably has to do with the fact that they were present in England so the Europeans knew of them, but they had never seen them in such great numbers as they did here.

 

Deer were hunted either by single hunters or by bands of hunters. When hunting singly, deer may have been stalked a by the hunter much as hunters do today.  By observing their habits throughout the year, the hunters would know what locations the deer favored (Williams 1643:224).  He would then either hunt the deer with his bow or would set snares and return to check them every day or two.  The second way in which deer were hunted was communally.  This could be done either by stalking or by setting snares as well.  These would be large parties who went out to do this.  Williams stated that 20 to 300 men might go out  to pursue the deer on foot. During the trap hunting the men would bring their wives and children if they did not need to travel far and build a small impermanent house which was their hunting lodge.  They would then stake out their bounds for their family that might be 2-4 miles and would set 30-50 traps and check these every few days (Williams 1643:224).

 

The importance of the deer to the people can be seen in the number of names that they used to describe them. The general name for deer was 'ahtuk' but the people further differentiated between ages and sexes. A 'paucottauwat' was a buck while a 'Wawunnes' was a young buck.  A 'qunneke' was a doe and a 'moosqin' was a fawn (Williams 1643:224).  Distinctions were made for a number of reasons.  One may have had to do with different qualities of the meat of the  deer.  Josselyn stated that the flesh of the fawns was considered the best (Josselyn 1672:99).  It also may have had to do with the spiritual connection that the people felt they shared with the deer.  Unfortunately this was not explicitly stated by any of the seventeenth century authors, merely hinted at.  For example, Williams wrote that the Natives were "¼very tender of their traps and where they lie, and what comes at them; for they say, the deer (whom they conceive has a divine power in them) will soon smell and be gone." (Williams 1643:224).  Deer skins were also used as tribute to the sachems of the communities.  The sachems had the right to the skin of any deer that was killed either by the hunter or by wolves in water (Williams 1643:224).

 

Josselyn gives a good description of the hunting done by the Natives to the north of Boston.  These people often hunted moose in this area, but the description of their hunting practices. He stated that "They go 30-40 miles up into the country and run down a moose.  When he has tired, they cut his throat and skin him, the  women take out the heart, cut off the left rear foot and draw the sinews out, and cut out his tongue and as much venison as will deserve to satiate them.  At the same time the men pitch camp near a spring and scrape the snow to the bare earth.  In the middle they make a fire near a tree and hang their kettle from one of the branches of the tree and boil the venison...They do not trouble themselves with the horns of the moose or the deer because they are weighty and cumbersome. They leave the carcass out there for the wolverines." (Josselyn 1672:99).  This was probably much the same way that the Natives in southeastern Massachusetts hunted deer during the large drives in the fall.  They would slay a large number of deer, take the meat and other parts they wanted and leave the rest.  In fact, the Pilgrims found a deer near Plymouth in 1621 that had its horns cut off and nothing else (Young 1974: 36).

 

The amount and number of deer elements present (Table 10) indicate that complete carcasses were brought back to the site for processing.  A minimum of eight individual deer were identified in the collection.  These deer ranged in ages from three individuals that were over 26 to 42 months old and two individuals that were under 26 months old.

 

Table 10. Deer elements present

 

Deer

 

Cram

 

          Cranial

 

36

 

          Antler

 

35

 

          Mandible

 

84

 

          Teeth

 

70

 

          Hyoid

 

1

 

          Scapula

 

19

 

          Humerus

 

71

 

          Ulna

 

7

 

          Radius

 

40

 

          Carpal

 

20

 

           Metacarpal

 

38

 

           Vertebra

 

91

 

           Rib

 

251

 

          Pelvis

 

25

 

           Femur

 

99

 

          Patella

 

2

 

           Tibia

 

79

 

           Sesamoid

 

10

 

          Calcaneum

 

24

 

          Astragelous

 

13

 

          Tarsal

 

13

 

           Metatarsal

 

109

 

           Metapodium

 

15

 

           Phalange

 

102

 

Totals

 

1954

 

              J.         Shell

Fifty-three fragments of shell from ten species are present in the collection (Table 11). Soft-shell clam represented the majority of the species identified, followed by oyster and quohog.  All species present would have been available at the mouth of the Jones River or in Plymouth Harbor.

  

Table 11. Shellfish from the Cram Collection

 

Species

 

Count

 

Percentage

 

Quahog

 

6

 

11.3%

 

Soft-Shell Clam

 

25

 

47.2%

 

Oyster

 

7

 

13.2%

 

Horse Mussel

 

3

 

5.7%

 

Channeled Whelk

 

2

 

3.8%

 

Surf Clam

 

2

 

3.8%

 

Sea Scallop

 

1

 

1.9%

 

Bay Scallop

 

1

 

1.9%

 

Moon Snail

 

5

 

9.4%

 

Blue Mussel

 

1

 

1.9%

 

Total

 

53

 

100%

 

There are numerous references to shellfish in the seventeenth century records.  Edward Winslow of Plymouth, noted that they could be found on Cape Cod at the Native village of Manomet, present day Bournedale, along with oysters, mussels, clams and razor clams (Young 1974:306).  Roger Williams noted that the "Sequnnock, Poquauhock" or horsefish were what the "English call hens, a little thick shell fish which the Indians wade deep and dive for, and after they have eaten the meat there (in those which are good) they break out the shell, about one half of an inch of the black part of it, of which they make their Suckauhock, or black money, which is to them pretious." (Williams 1971:182).

 

Edward Winslow mentioned that in March of 1623 the colonists ate clams as well as mussels (Young 1974: 306, 329).  John Pory, an early visitor to the colony, noted in 1622 that they had clams and mussels in that place all the year long (James 1963b:09).  Thomas Morton, during his stay at Merrymount (present day Quincy), took note that every shore was full of clams and that the Natives took great delight in them (Morton 1972:90). William Wood noted, in somewhat derisive terms, that raccoons and "Indian women" feed upon clams at the sea shore, that they were not much unlike a quahog (cockle) and occurred in great plenty (Wood 1977:44, 56).  Once again Roger Williams provides us with our most detailed commentary upon the Native use of clams "Sickissuog                     Clams

This is a sweet kind of shellfish, which all Indians generally over the country, winter and summer delight in; and at low water the women dig for them: this fish, and the natural liquor of it, they boil, and it makes their broth and their Nasaump (which is  kind of thickened broth) and their bread seasonable and savory instead of salt: and for that the English swine dig and root these clams at low water wheresoever they come, and watch the low water." (Williams 1971:182)

Finally, John Josselyn noted that clams were one of the first marine resources to be gathered in the spring (Josselyn 1672:100).

 

K.        Worked Bone

In association with the deer bones, seven objects made of worked bone were recovered.  These included three awls, used for perforating, one antler tip possibly used for flint knapping, two fragments of polished bone and one pendent with small cuts on the edges.  These objects all appear to have been made from various deer elements including the metatarsal, femur and antler.

 

L.        Natural/ Modern/ Historic materials

The Cram Collection also contains several natural objects or objects that clearly did not have a Kingston origin.  Both classes of objects are listed below:

 

1 Lithic Obsidion Obsidion point  not local

1 Lithic Talc oval talc fragment with hole drilled in middle  local?

3 Lithic Quartzite Oval stone beads drilled with a stone drill 2.6cm long  .6cm diameter hole  2.9 cm long 1cm diameter hole

1 Bone Tool Bone harpoon point likely from Alaska

1 Bone Walrus Large possible walrus tooth  recent

79 unmodified pebbles

1 Flora Wood  Recent chewed beaver wood

 1 Wood  Wood fragment  natural

1 Flora Nut Recent hickory nut hull

6 Flora Charcoal fragments

1 Flora Wood  Twig

2 Floral Charcoal fragments

 1 Floral Wood   

3 Wood Charcoal fragments

 

The collection also includes several recent artifacts including the following:

11 Coal fragments

1 Possible poured cement fragment

2 Sewer Pipe Modern sewer pipe fragments

 

The collection also contains seventeenth through nineteenth century artifacts form unknown locations.

1 Borderware pipkin Leg

2 Pipe 4/64" diameter TD pipe

1 Pipe 4/ 64" diameter stem S 78 W. White /Glasgow Scotland

1 Pipe stem McDougall/ Scotland

1 Pipe Stem 4/64"

1 Pipe 18th century RT incised on bowl 5/64" Stem bore

1 Redware 18th century redware with dark brown interior glaze

1 Redware black interior glaze

1 Redware fragment glaze missing

1  Iron rust fragment

6 Iron slag fragments

1 Hand-wrought nail

3  Possible hand-wrought nail fragments

3 Metal Copper Nails 2.7 cm long  all heads bent over

2  Iron Oxen shoes

1 Flint Grey flint fragment

1 Melted glass fragment

1 Glass Slag fragment