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Six hundred and sixty-three seventy-eight clay pipe fragments with measurable bores were recovered during the 1972 excavations at C-21, the Allerton/ Cushman site.  The majority of the pipe stems were of the 7/64"size. 

C-21 Pipe Bore Diameters

                         Stem and bowls  

9/64"                            60/ 9.1%

8/64"                            206/ 31.1%             

8/64" Redware             2/ .3%

7/64"                            314/  47.4%

6/64"                            78/ 11.8%

5/64"                            1/ .2%             

4/64"                            2/ .3%

                                 663/ 100.2%


As can be seen from the dating from approximately 1630 to the end of the century, the percentage of the various size stems appears to support the hypothesis that the site was initially Isaac Allerton's and later was Thomas Cushman's. Of the 429 pipe bowl fragments recovered, 67 can be dated by either their bowl shape or maker's mark.

1590-1645 star on heel  (1620-1650 bowl shape)                          1

1590-1670  Crowned rose (1620-1650 small belly bowl)   2

1610-1640 teardrop heel                                                    1

1619-1652 RB  (1620-1650 small belly bowl)               1

1620-1650 small belly bowl                                                            7

1630-1650 EB                                                                         1

1630-1660 Dutch baroque                                                 3

1640-1660 medium belly (RC)                                        1

1650-1670                                                                               1

1650-1670 heelless funnel (Pipes B)                                             2

1650-1680 medium belly bowl (Pipes I, J)                                 8

1650-1685 Tudor rose                                                                   1

1657-1700 WK                                                                 1

1660-1680 medium belly bowl                                         2

1660-1690 heelless funnel                                                   7

1661-1681  LE                                                                        8

1680-1710 large belly bowl                                                            5

1680-1710 heel less funnel                                                  9

1680-1710 spurred heel                                                      5

1690-1710 spurred heel                                                      1

Total                                                                                        66

C-21 Dates for Pipe Bowl Styles Based on Oswald and Duco

Oswald Pipes (Figure number and example number)

39-5     1640-1660    1

45-6     1650-1670    1

41-26   1650-1670    2

39-6     1660-1680    2 (Pipes L)

39-x     1660-1680    4 (Pipes K)

40-x     1660-1680    2

42-x     1660-1690    6

41-25   1660-1690    1

39-7     1680-1710    1 (Pipes Q)

39-8     1680-1710    7

39-9     1680-1710    6 (Pipes M)

41-26   1680-1710    9

42-19   1690-1710    1 (Pipes N)

Dutch after Duco

23        1620-1650    10

26        1650-1675    1 (Pipes P)

54        1650-1680    1



1620-1650            10/ 18.2%

1640-1675            5/ 9.1%

1660-1690            16/ 29.1%

1680-1710            24/ 43.6%

                        55/ 100%


The summary of the identifiable pipe bowl styles, based on Oswald for the English pipes and Duco for the Dutch, indicates two periods of occupation at the site with a possible period of abandonment between them.  The first period was between 1620 and 1650 while the second period began sometime after 1650, and possibly after 1660 and lasted until the end of the century.  This fits in well with the interpretation of the site as initially being Allerton's for a short period of time in the 1630s, suffering from a period of abandonment in the 1640s and part of the 1650s, and subsequently becoming the homesite of the Cushman's until the end of the century.

     The maker's marks also coordinate well with the date ranges for the shapes of the pipes from the site. One large belly bowl style pipe bowl bears a single raised dot on its right side, probably part of a five-dot pattern called the Tudor Rose or Mulberry (Pipes S).  This decorative technique was initially used by the Dutch in the 1630s, but eventually spread to England in the 1650s.  It is believed to have been produced to the end of the century, at least after 1685 (Faulkner 172). Two heels from small belly bowls bear a crowned Tudor Rose on their bases (Pipes G ). This mark appears to be Dutch and dates from 1590 to 1670. Eight stems or bowls bear the marks of LLewellin Evans who was Bristol pipe maker from 1661 to 1689 (Pipes D and O ). Three stems are in the Dutch Baroque style dating from approximately 1630 to the 1660s (Pipes E). There is one bowl which bears the initials EB on the base of the heel which probably belongs to Edward Bird who was a pipe maker in Holland before 1630 and who continued producing until 1665. Another Dutch mark from a heel is an eight pointed star stamped on the base of a small belly bowl pipe and dates from 1620 to 1660 (Pipes A ).  Another maker's mark, this time on the back of the bowl, is the initials WK for William Kinton, a Bristol pipe maker from 1657-1700 (Pipes C). The initials RB (Pipes H), which may be Richard Berryman who was making pipes at Bristol from 1619-1652 were found on the base of a small belly bowl pipe. The initials RC within a circle of dots was found on the base of a medium sized belly bowl stylistically datable by Oswald to 1640-1660 (Pipes F).  RC may be Richard Cable, c. 1643, who was a Bristol pipe maker. There is also an interesting teardrop shaped heel on a bowl that has a shape that is datable from 1620 to 1650. Oswald illustrates a Bristol pipe with a similar shaped heel that he dates from 1651-1714 (Oswald 33).  Noel Hume illustrates a similar shaped heel on a bowl on which he places a date of 1610-1640 (Pipes R). 

    Two redware pipe bowl fragments were recovered also. One is a heel fragment that appears to be from a small to medium sized belly bowl and the other more remarkable fragment has an incised design on its side that identifies it as being a product of Virginia. Dr. Stephen Pendery, who has done a great deal of work on redware pipes in New England, stated that the motif might be of the running deer motif.

    One other pipe stem is present in the assemblage and even though it is not of clay it is worth noting here. This is a fragment of gray green steatite or soapstone, native made pipe stem. While the Wampanoag inhabitants of the site prior to the 1616 to 1618 epidemic may have used this pipe, there is also the strong possibility that it was used either by the Allerton or Cushman families. Soapstone pipes are noted in at least one probate inventory of the period. This was in the 1643 inventory of William Kemp. William Wood, an observer of the colony in 1634, noted that: "From hence (the Narragansett) they have their great stone pipes, which will hold a quarter of an ounce of tobacco, which they make with steel drills and other instruments......they can imitate the English mold so accurately that were it not for the matter and color it were hard to distinguish them. They make them of black and green stone; they are much desired of our English tobacconists for their rarity, strength, handsomness, and coolness." (Wood 81). Stone pipes have also been recovered from other sites within the former Plymouth Colony such as the RM site in Plymouth and the Winslow site in Marshfield, Massachusetts.

From this previous discussion of the pipes from the site, the dating of the site is confirmed, including the earlier Allerton period. It also touched upon the distances from which some of the artifacts used on the site came form. The Bristol and Holland pipes begin to illustrate some of the European sources for the material while the Virginian redware pipes and the native made soapstone illustrate the colonial that was occurring.